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NUMBER 1218 January 12, 2010


ANNOUNCEMENTS

Kentucky Pest News Has a New Look for 2010
By KPN Team

The Kentucky Pest News web site has been, for many years, an excellent resource for producers and Extension personnel in the Commonwealth. For 2010, this great resource has received a makeover. The Kentucky Pest News team is pleased to introduce a newly-redesigned Kentucky Pest News web site which can be found at its new address, www.uky.edu/KPN.

Along with up-to-date information on current pest, weed, and disease issues in Kentucky agriculture, the new web site features an easy-to-use navigation bar, improved ability to search previous issues, and visual enhancements to the main and current issue pages. We invite you, our readers, to visit the new page and hope that you like what you see!

FRUIT CROPS

Fruit Spray Guide Changes for 2010
By John Hartman
 
  Figure 1. 2010 Midwest Tree Fruit Spray Guide. This publication involves fruit specialists from eight states including Kentucky.

Kentucky commercial fruit growers can obtain current advice on management of fruit diseases in two U.K. Cooperative Extension Service publications: ID-92 - 2010 Midwest Tree Fruit

Spray Guide (Figure 1), and ID-94 - 2010 Midwest Small Fruit and Grape Spray Guide (Figure 2), both available from local County Extension Offices statewide. These guides are revised annually by a team of University plant pathologists, entomologists, and horticulturists from throughout the Midwest. For 2010, there are some relatively minor changes in disease management advice from previous editions of the guides.

Tree Fruit Spray Guide - Apple. For fire blight management during the dormant to silver tip stages, Bordeaux mixture has been added to the list of fungicides that may be used. Later, during bloom, Mycoshield (oxytetracycline) is now listed for fire blight management. The guide also notes that Mycoshield is not as effective for fire blight control as streptomycin. Unless streptomycin resistance has been confirmed in the orchard, streptomycin is the material of choice for fire blight control.

 
Figure 2. 2010 Midwest Small Fruit and Grape Spray Guide. This publication involves fruit specialists from eleven states including Kentucky.  
   

For primary scab management at green tip the guide notes that two of the fungicides listed, Vangard and Scala, are more effective at temperatures below 70F. At the tight cluster stage, Vintage SC is introduced as a replacement for Rubigan EC for scab, powdery mildew and rust management. Vintage is a water-based formulation of fenarimol that will be replacing Rubigan EC. The efficacy of Vintage SC is equal to that of Rubigan EC. Vintage was also added to the pear spray schedule.

At first and second cover sooty blotch and flyspeck were added to the list of diseases needing control by the fungicides used at this stage. At third cover, there is a separate listing for sooty blotch and flyspeck where the combination of ProPhyt (phosphorous acid) and captan have been added to the guide. Also noted for the summer cover sprays is the suggestion that the use of spreader-sticker adjuvant in the last one or two sprays for sooty blotch and flyspeck may improve the level of control. Do not use Flint in combination with organosilicate surfactants.

Tree Fruit Spray Guide - Cherry. Bacterial canker disease was added to the guide. It is noted that bacterial canker is generally more serious on sweet cherries than on tart cherries. Many copper compounds are registered for use as a dormant application for control of bacterial canker of cherry. See labels and rates for timing. Do not apply copper later than the white bud stage; because injury to flowers can occur. At petal fall it is noted that tart cherry is more susceptible to fungal leaf spot than is sweet cherry. For powdery mildew, the fungicide Quash 50WG (metaconazole) was added to the list of suggested fungicides.

Tree Fruit Spray Guide - Peach. For powdery mildew management at shuck split and first cover sprays, the fungicide Quintec 2.08F (quinoxyfen) was added.

Tree Fruit Spray Guide - Plum. The fungicide Quash 50WG was added to the list of fungicides suggested for pre-bloom management of brown rot blossom blight.

Small Fruit Spray guide - Grape. The guide notes the need for starting powdery mildew management activity early in the season during the bud break to bloom period. Mettle 125ME (tetraconazole) is listed as a new fungicide among other fungicides for powdery mildew and black rot management. Mettle is again included in lists of fungicides to be used all the way from bloom to harvest. Vintage SC has the same active ingredient as Rubigan EC and will be replacing it throughout the spray guide. See the note on apple spray guide, above.

Small Fruit Spray Guide - Blueberry. There is an explanation of how phosphorous acid fungicides are applied to foliage while suppressing Phytophthora root rot.

Small Fruit Spray Guide - Blackberry and Raspberry. There were no changes for 2010.

Small Fruit Spray Guide - Strawberry. The guide presents more in-depth information on use of phosphorous acid fungicides for strawberry red stele and leather rot.

LIVESTOCK

Questions to Consider When Planning for Pasture Fly Control – 2010
By Lee Townsend

The price break on early orders is a big incentive to make control purchases well before the pest season begins. Here are a few things to consider as you weight the options and make your decisions on face fly and horn fly control:

What is your key pest? A key pest is one that is there every year, and when it is bad, causes significant losses in expense, management time, and effort. In Kentucky it is usually either the face fly, and associated pink eye, or the horn fly. Since face flies and horn flies are around every herd, the one that is consistently the greater problem is the one to build the program around. While most fly control products and approaches are labeled for both pests, there are some differences in effectiveness. The face fly is the more challenging pest because it spends very little time on animals, mostly on the hard-to-treat face where it feeds on tears, saliva, and mucus. In contrast, blood-feeding horn flies spend most all of their time on the more easily treated sides and back of cattle. Select the control strategy that puts the protection where it is needed.

What are your grazing practices and pasture set-up? If cattle are in pastures with controlled access to water and mineral, then forced-used or self- treatment options like dust bags, back rubbers, or automatic spray devices can be economical and effective. Careful hanging of dust bags or suspending fly-flips or other supplemental treatment devices to ensure treatment of the head and face can give very good face fly and horn fly control. Adjusting the nozzles on automatic sprayers will direct the liquid to the target most effectively. These self-application systems require some maintenance and their insecticide dispensers have to be checked and refilled as needed.

If animals are moved regularly in a rotational grazing program, then fixed application stations may be impractical. Insecticidal ear tags provide a portable fly control system that moves with the animal. Tags tend to give very good horn fly control and a reduction in face fly numbers per head. Spray or pour-on insecticides may be practical and very economical for horn fly control if there is a means of gathering up and confining / handling animals about once a month during the fly season.

What was your 2009 fly control program and how did it work? The “How did it work?” part can be difficult to judge, especially with the extra rainfall of 2009. Wet conditions are good for fly breeding since the maggots develop in moist manure. Higher face fly and horn fly populations this past summer may be due more to weather conditions than product performance. However, it is important to consider your long term use patterns, especially if you rely on insecticidal ear tags. Continued use of insecticides from the same chemical family can lead to the development of pest populations that are more difficult to control. If you have been using pyrethroid ear tags for several consecutive years, incorporate insecticides with different modes of action into your program. Tags are available with insecticides having one of several ways of attacking the pest, and there are some combination tags that pair insecticides with different modes of action.

There are many options for pasture fly control. Matching products and application methods best suited for your key pest and herd management practices will help you pick an effective strategy.

WINTER ARTHROPODS

Winter Arthropods
By Lee Townsend

Many arthropods disappear during the winter but those in and around buildings remain active. Some are accidental invaders that wander in through cracks and crevices but others are permanent residents. Knowing the difference and responding appropriately is the key to coping with them effectively. Here are examples of some of the specimens that have arrived recently in the Insect Identification Lab and a little bit of their story.

The furrow spider belongs to a genus of orb- weavers (Larinioides) that builds flat wheel-spoke webs strung between vertical surfaces, often near water. These spiders will move to sheltered sites in the winter and will build webs in undisturbed areas, such as crawl spaces, attics, and backs of closets. They will bite if disturbed but they are not a threat to humans.

   
Figure 3. Furrow Spider.   Figure 4. Rice Weevil (long snout at front of head).  
       

The rice weevil is a very common household insect. This snout beetle with 2 orange spots on each wing cover develops in whole seed kernels. Sources of infestation often are forgotten caches of whole corn, wheat, sunflower, and other seeds, even in “bean bags” used in games. The legless, grub-like larvae develop entirely within a seed and leave a round exit hole upon emergence. Finding and destroying infested items is the key to ending an infestation. Even then, the insects may persist for some time because adults can live for about 2 months. They should be collected and destroyed.

Carpet beetle larvae (Fig. 5) resemble small hairy caterpillars but the adult stage is a beetle. These insects are scavengers that feed on a range of materials, particularly natural fibers – cotton, wool, processed grains, and animal matter, such as leather, feathers, and hair. Sanitation is the main way to deal with them but it is difficult to remove all items on which they can feed. Small amounts of crumbs in carpet and dead insects in wall voids are examples of out-of-the-way development sites. Thorough vacuuming and cleaning is the best way to deal with them.

       
   
  Figure 5. Carpet beetle larvae (head at light end).   Figure 6. Left top-remains of tree cricket, middle- silken wasp cocoon with bits of grass, bottom- wasp cocoon with grass and silk removed. Right- clipped grass brought into nest by wasp.

Here is a curious one that can be found during fall or spring clean-up. Grass- carrying wasps nest in natural voids or crevices that they line with clipped blades of grasses. Around structures, tracks for sliding glass doors and window screens can serve as nesting sites. These hunters capture certain species of grasshoppers or crickets, sting them, and carry them back to the nest. There, the paralyzed insects become food for the grub-like larvae of the wasp. Accumulations of grass, along with insect parts, are found during cleaning or when seldom used doors or windows are opened. While these wasps can sting, they do not defend their nests strongly. There is no need for control measures.

 

Information and recommendations in Kentucky Pest News are have been written for audiences in Kentucky. Readers outside of Kentucky should be aware that situations and regulations in Kentucky may differ from those in their particular location, and should consult their local Cooperative Extension Service for guidance.

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