ISSUED: 1-88
James H. Herbek and Morris J. Bitzer
Department of Agronomy

Status and Trends
Soybeans have emerged as a major crop in Kentucky. As late as 1960, the Kentucky crop was valued at less than $10 million. However, by 1979, soybeans were valued at over $300 million and accounted for more than 20% of the total value of all crops produced by Kentucky farmers. Despite recent price and production fluctuations, soybeans continue to rank as one of Kentucky's 4 major crops in value of production. Since 1980, soybeans have accounted for 13-18% of the total crop value in Kentucky with an average annual value of almost $250 million.
Compared to other crops in the state, soybeans' change from minor to major crop status came about quite rapidly (Table 1). Within 20 years (from the late 1950s to the late 1970s) soybean acreage increased over 700% and production increased over 1000%. With less than 5% of the acreage in 1950, soybeans now comprise between 35-40% of Kentucky's total grain crop acreage. The most rapid increase in acreage occurred between 1970 and 1980 when it increased over 100,000 acres/year.
Soybean yields have increased less dramatically. Table 1 indicates that yields actually decreased in the early 1980s. However, several droughts occurred during this period and if two of the worst years are disregarded, state yields averaged over 30 bu/acre. Since the early 1950s, yields have increased by 90%, averaging an increase of .5 bu/acre/year, less than the average yield increases of other grain crops during this time.
Several reasons exist for the slower increase in soybean yields: 1) Soybeans were not treated as a major crop; 2) rapid acreage increase often relegated soybeans to less productive land; 3) rapid acreage increase resulted in "first-time" growers unfamiliar with soybean production; 4) soybean technology did not keep pace with the rapid increase in soybean acreage; and 5) a good portion of Kentucky's soybean crop is double-cropped, resulting in late-plantings which have a reduced yield.
However, the situation has changed in the last 5-10 years. Soybeans are being treated as a "first-line" crop, new growers are becoming more familiar with them and production technology is being more readily adopted. With present production technology, state average yields could be increased to 40-45 bu/acre. In fact, some Kentucky producers have already achieved over 70 bu/acre in official yield contests. Continued acreage expansion is also possible. In 1977 Kentucky's potential soybean acreage was identified at about 2.5 million acres, 1 million more than is now being grown.
Presently, soybean production is centered in western Kentucky. In 1985, 82% of the acreage and production occurred in Kentucky's 26 westernmost counties. However, soybean production is gradually expanding into central and eastern Kentucky. Whereas in 1970 only 5% of Kentucky's soybeans were grown in central Kentucky, in 1984 this portion expanded to 13%.
Early use of soybeans all over the US was for forage or hay and, to some extent, green manure. Not until the early 1940s did the US acreage of soybeans grown for seed exceed that grown for forage and other purposes. Presently the US produces over half of the world's soybeans. Soybeans and soybean products are among the leading US agricultural export commodities. From 40-50% of all US soybeans have been exported in recent years which means that 1 of every 2 acres of soybeans depends on export markets. Exports of Kentucky soybeans and soybean products were valued at $120 million in 1985.

Table 1. Five-year Averages of Soybean Acreage, Yield and Production in Kentucky Since 1935.
5-Year Period Harvested Acreage Yield (Bu/Acre) Production 
(Million Bu)
1935-39 10,800 10.9 .12
1940-44 58,600 12.5 .73
1945-49 97,400 17.8 1.73
1950-54 122,000 16.4 2.00
1955-59 151,000 21.2 3.20
1960-64 219,000 23.6 5.17
1965-69 381,200 26.3 10.03
1970-74 825,800 26.8 22.13
1975-79 1,302,000 29.5 38.41
1980-84 1,556,000 25.8 40.14
1985-86 (2 yr.) 1,200,000 33.0 39.60
Record Yield: 34.0 bu/acre in 1985.
Record Harvested Acreage: 1,660,000 acres in 1979.
Source: Kentucky Crop Reporting Service.

Crop Uses
The soybean is a versatile crop that can be used for many purposes. Today it is grown almost exclusively as a cash crop for its oil-bearing seed or bean which is then processed and refined into many oil and meal products. However, soybeans can also be grown for hay, silage, residue utilization, green manure crop and specialty markets.

Oil Seed Uses (Cash Crop)
Oil-bearing seed crops, such as the soybean, have always been in demand. As a result, the soybean has become an important cash crop. After the seed of the soybean crop is harvested and sold, it can be processed into various oil and protein products and by-products with a multitude of uses.
Soybean seed provides 2 important food components, fat in the form of oil and protein in the form of meal. Both components are derived at a per acre rate that exceeds most other oilseed, food grain and feed grain crops. Soybean seed contains an average of 20% oil and 40% protein. One bushel (60 lb) of processed soybeans typically yields 47-48 lb of high protein meal and 11-12 lb of oil. However, there can be considerable variation around these averages. The value of a bushel of soybeans is determined by the combined values of the oil and meal products. Different market factors will affect the values of the soybean products and as their values change, so will the value of soybeans.
Most soybean seed is processed for its oil. The seed can be processed and refined to remove the oil so that both the oil and meal are of suitable quality. The primary product remaining after oil extraction is soybean meal, which is high in protein.
Oil products and uses--Soybean oil is the most important source for fats and oils in the world market. In the US most of the soybean oil (90%) goes to the edible oil market and the rest is used in animal feed and industrial products. Edible products of soybean oil include salad and cooking oils, baking and frying fats and margarine as well as other food products. Industrial uses include lubricants, fuel, cements, printing ink, pesticide carriers, dust suppressants, paints, soaps and lacquers.
Protein products and uses--The soybean's nutritive value ranks the highest of all plant proteins. In the US the majority of the protein products are used in animal feed and the rest in edible food products. Soybean products, primarily meal, are used in animal diets because of their low cost, high protein concentration and widespread availability.
Although soybeans and soybean products have been used as foods in oriental cultures for centuries, the western world has just begun to recognize their importance for human food. Edible protein products show promise as an expansive market for soybeans because of their high quality protein, multitude of uses, and the development of new processing, refining and manufacturing methods that will make these products more acceptable to consumers. The soybean is one of the most nearly ideal raw materials for developing new foods. It contains all the essential amino acids, has no cholesterol, is high in unsaturated fat, and its milk contains no lactose.
Four major types of soy protein products are used for human food: flour and grits, protein concentrates, protein isolates and textured proteins. These all differ from each other in protein content, and in physical and chemical properties. Soybean products can be found in many foods including baked goods, soups, baby foods, beverages, cereals, snack foods, confectionary products, dairy products, meat product extenders or analogs, and as milk substitutes.
Many nutritious and economical foods can be prepared directly from soybeans or their raw products. Although these foods have been common in the Orient for centuries, they are relatively new to the US. Typical of such foods prepared by fermentation of soybeans are soy sauce, natto (oriental delicacy), and tempeh (vegetative hamburger alternative). Traditional unfermented soybean foods are fresh green soybeans, soybean sprouts, soynuts (roasted whole soybeans), soy milk, soybean flour and tofu (bean curd).
Since the soybeans grown in Kentucky are produced primarily as a cash crop for oil seed uses, the production and management topics discussed in this 5-part series will relate to producing soybeans for this purpose. However, a brief discussion follows for each of the soybean crop's other uses.

Soybean Hay
Soybeans have potential for hay production. Although the acreage is small today, at one time the soybean crop was considered more important for hay than grain. However, its low yield compared to other crops used as forage, the development of a more profitable crushing market for soybean seed in the 1930s and development of improved varieties and production practices of superior forage crops led to the decline of the soybean as a forage crop. Presently, soybean hay is usually grown where another forage legume does not grow well, as an emergency hay crop or as a method of salvaging a soybean crop if seed does not develop normally.
Any crop's value for hay production is determined by its ability to produce digestible dry matter with an acceptable level of crude protein. Thus, timing of harvest is important for best hay quality. Soybean hay yields increase with time until the leaves start turning yellow and dropping. The protein percentage in soybean hay does not decrease with age as much as most forage plants, especially grasses, because of the higher protein content in the developing seed. Although the protein content of the leaves and stems decreases with maturity, the protein content of the hay crop actually increases or remains constant because of the increasing seed content.
Soybeans may be cut for hay over a long period, from mid-bloom until the leaves begin to fall. The pod stage is preferred for hay over the bloom stage because of higher dry matter yields, higher crude protein digestibility, gross energy and digestible energy. Late cutting is therefore better than early cutting. Some of the more recent research indicates that, based on both quality and yield, the best time to cut soybeans for hay is at mid to maximum pod fill and some bottom leaves may be turning yellow (stage R6) but before leaf drop. Hay harvested from green, well-podded soybeans will have from 15-20% crude protein and 50-60% total digestible nutrients. An average yield of soybean hay is about 2 tons/acre with 3 tons/acre or more under ideal growing conditions. Because the soybean plant's most digestible and nutritive parts are the beans, pods and leaves, harvest should occur before serious leaf deterioration and drop.
As plants mature, the stems become coarser and may cause feeding preference problems. Thus, harvesting should not be delayed much beyond the best time for quality. Soybean hay is more difficult to cure because the thicker stems dry more slowly. If used as hay, soybeans should be dried adequately to avoid spoilage in storage. The hay should be cured to 20% moisture before baling. A common practice is to cut with a mower, cure in a swath and windrow. Use of a hay conditioner will facilitate curing.
Since soybean hay is rather coarse, it does not keep as well and waste losses are increased if it is stored outside. Large, round bales have been used successfully to store soybean hay. A high density bale is desirable because it resists moisture penetration better than a low density bale. However, compactness can also be undesirable because livestock have trouble tearing the bale apart and coarse stems can further limit feeding access.

Production practices that favor soybean hay production include:
1.Use of a full-season variety for your area to increase vegetative growth and hay yield. Some older hay-type varieties, which are generally more viney and finer-stemmed, are still available. However, research has shown most of the present-day, full-season grain types do as well.
2.Plant at optimum planting dates. Late plantings reduce vegetative growth and production.
3.Plant in narrow or solid rows at higher seeding rates (11/2 to 2 bu/acre) to produce higher yields of finer-stemmed hay.

Often under poor growing conditions such as late plantings, early frost, drought and poor stands a soybean crop intended for grain harvest is considered instead for a hay crop. In these cases the producer should estimate yield potential for both soybeans and hay, evaluate production costs and estimate harvesting costs and market value for each before deciding what to do. Remember that soybeans are primarily a cash crop and usually will return more as grain than hay.
Before soybeans are used for forage (hay, silage, or residue), check for any restrictions on their use for feed in relation to any chemicals (herbicides, insecticides, or fungicides) used on the crop.

Soybean Silage
Soybeans can be used as a high protein silage. Crude protein on a dry matter basis is higher (15-20%) than corn (7-10%). Soybeans can also be planted later than corn. The biggest disadvantage, however, is relatively low yields (5-8 tons/acre).
Any soybean varieties used for grain production can be used for silage. As with a hay crop, the later the silage is cut, the higher the yield and the better the quality. Total protein and yield is highest when pods reach maximum fill, but digestibility may decrease slightly. The best compromise for silage harvesting may be to cut when the pods are 1/2-3/4 filled which is before lower leaves begin to drop and before the stem begins to get woody and lower in digestibility. When used for silage, soybeans should be wilted to 40 to 50% dry matter before chopping. The silage material should be finely chopped.
Recently interest has been shown in combining soybean silage with another crop, particularly grain sorghum, as a drought resistant summer silage crop. The soybean-sorghum silage has lower yields, greater costs per ton, lower feed conversion, is less palatable, lower in TDN, and higher in fiber and protein than corn silage. Thus, this combination is neither cost efficient nor of quality equal to corn silage. However, if corn planting is delayed, or a temporary silage crop is needed, or production occurs on droughty soils, the crop combination may be desirable.
Research experience has shown that crop mixtures seldom yield more than the highest yielding crop of the combination when grown alone. Growing two crops simultaneously also presents production practice problems with competition between crops, seeding rates, fertility, weed control and proper stage of harvest for each crop.

Soybean Residue
By-products of crop production, such as soybean residue, are a source of large quantities of low-cost feed. Residues are generally high in fiber, high in dry matter, moderate to low in energy and low in protein, vitamins and minerals. Soybean residue contains 4-5% protein and 40-45% TDN. Material that ends up as tailings behind the combine contains the most nutritious parts of the plant residue, but this material is the hardest to collect. Dried stems are only 30% digestible compared to 60% for the leaves. Pods are higher in protein and are the best part of the residue. Soybean residue yields are generally one ton/acre or less.
Several methods can be used to harvest or utilize the residue for feed. Grazing fields is the most common way of harvesting since it is usually the cheapest and requires less labor and equipment. However, this method results in the poorest utilization. Other methods consist mainly of mechanized harvesting for storage either in the field or at other sites. These include trailing dump wagons during combining, forage harvesters with flail pickups, stacking machines and balers. Residues stored in big packages should be fed in a manner that minimizes feeding losses.
Concerns about crop residue removal are that it increases depletion of soil nutrients and organic matter and increases soil erosion. Caution should be exercised for continuous removal on sloping lands and where soil structural problems exist. Extensive removal of residues on these soils will increase the problems. If crop residues are continually removed on these soils, winter cover crops should be grown.

Green Manure Crop
Soybeans are considered an excellent green manure crop for improving soil structure and providing fertility as a preceding crop in a rotation program with other crops, such as corn. Although green manure was used to some extent several years ago, it does not fit well into the present-day intensive grain programs. Present-day economics do not justify the value received from leaving the land idle and growing a green manure compared to growing another cash grain crop on that land. However, on poorly productive soils or acres that are idle, growing green manure can improve the soil. Plowing soybeans under as green manure can add significant amounts of organic matter and nitrogen to the soil.

Specialty Markets
Presently the markets for specialty soybeans are small and highly competitive but can be good and profitable for those who can get and hold onto them. Specialty soybeans are in demand from certain food manufacturers, primarily in the Orient, to make traditional soybean foods such as tofu, natto, bean sprouts and soy milk. Manufacturers of these foods prefer certain characteristics in soybeans to produce a high quality product. Although all of the specialty food markets require a clean, varietally pure, high quality soybean, other requirements will differ depending on the soybean food product.
Special seed characteristics required may include color, size and uniformity, carbohydrate content, protein content, processed appearance and taste, or hilum and seed coat requirements. For example, high-protein soybeans are preferred for the tofu market while smaller seeded varieties are useful for the sprout market. Large seeded varieties (vegetable types) are preferred for consumption as a vegetable, for roasting or for cooking. A small seed size, colorless hilum, thin seed coat and high carbohydrate content are preferred for natto.
Extra effort and care are required to produce a high quality soybean for the specialty food market, but the effort is compensated for by premium prices.
Presently, several universities and seed companies are developing soybean varieties with unique characteristics for specialty food markets.

Preproduction Planning
Several management decisions need to be made before planting. Although they may not be directly involved in the planting process, they will greatly affect the outcome of the soybean crop. These planning decisions, which will have multi-year effects on soybean production, include land selection, cropping systems, tillage systems and irrigation.

Land Selection
Although land selection is only the first step in a total management program necessary for profitable soybean production, it is the basis on which to build better than average soybean yields. Like other crops, soybeans are more likely to reach their yield potential on soils with no rooting restrictions, high fertility and adequate moisture. Thus, in general, first class soybean soils are deep or moderately deep, well to moderately well-drained, medium-textured, fertile soils that occur on level or gently sloping land where flooding, run-off and erosion are minimal.
Although soils having these characteristics have the greatest potential for maximum yields, profitable yields can be obtained on soils with less than optimum conditions. However, as the characteristics of soils selected for soybean production become less desirable, decreases in yield should be expected. The desirable characteristics of a good soil for soybean production are further discussed below.

Water-holding Capacity
Soils should have a moderately high available water-holding capacity since soybeans require from 18 to 22 inches of water for good growth and development, which is more than the average growing season rainfall. Any deficit not met with rainfall must be recovered from water stored in the soil. Compared to corn, soybeans have a higher water requirement per bushel. Based on average yields, over 3 times as much water is needed to produce a bushel of soybeans as to produce a bushel of corn.
In addition to water needs during plant growth, soybeans require more moisture for germination than corn. A soybean seed has to absorb 50% of its weight in water for germination to start while corn only needs to absorb 30% of its weight in water.
The soil's water-holding capacity is particularly important during the plant's reproductive development. Moisture stress during the stages of early flowering through early pod-fill can reduce yields by decreasing pod numbers, seeds per pod and seed size. Also any moisture stress before pod-fill is completed can limit nutrient uptake and result in yield reductions. Medium-textured (loamy) soils have higher available water-holding capacities than do fine-textured (clayey) or coarse-textured (sandy) soils. Soils selected should have a relatively rapid water intake rate and should be nearly level to gently sloping so water runoff is minimal.

Rooting Depth
Soybean soils should also have at least 3 ft of unrestricted rooting zone. The soil should be free of hardpans, permanent high water tables, and extremely coarse-textured or fine-textured layers. In a soil free of physical and chemical limitations, soybean roots can penetrate to a depth of 5 ft and laterally from 2 to 2 1/2 ft. In addition to natural soil limitations that restrict root growth, man-made restrictions such as compaction or traffic pans can also restrict root growth. Compaction often results from excessive use of tillage equipment when soils are too wet. Any soil characteristic that restricts or alters the development and distribution of soybean roots will have a detrimental effect on growth and yield.

Well or moderately well drained soils are best suited for soybean production. Poorly-drained soils often have problems such as flooding, a high water table or low oxygen levels, and create late planting and adverse harvesting situations, any one of which can reduce yields. On the other hand, excessively drained soils, either those occurring on steep slopes or those with very rapid internal drainage, may not supply enough water.

Soil Structure
Soils selected for soybeans should have a relatively stable structure in the surface horizon. They should not have suffered much erosion and have at least 1% or more organic matter in the surface horizon. Surface soils low in organic matter and with poor structure tend to form crusts as they dry after heavy rains, which can hinder the soybean seedling's emergence. The result is usually reduced stands and yields.
Because soybeans leave a small amount of easily-decomposed residue (about 3000 lb/acre), land on which they are grown is more vulnerable to erosion. For this reason, land with slight to no erosion hazard is best for soybean production. When soybeans are grown on erosion-prone upland soils, conservation tillage practices should be followed to control erosion.

Cropping Systems
Soybeans can be used advantageously in many cropping systems and rotations involving the major grain crops (corn, grain sorghum, and small grains) in the state as well as some of the forage crops. The sequence of crops before and after soybeans affects each crop's productivity. Studies in several states, including Kentucky (Table 2), have shown that corn following soybeans yield 5-15% more than corn following corn. Soybeans following corn have also yielded more than soybeans following soybeans.
Why do rotations improve yields? 1) Soybeans often provide some nitrogen for the following crop. 2) Sound rotation systems help control nematodes, diseases, insects and weeds. With any cropping rotation sequence, the grower needs to be aware of rotation restrictions concerning herbicide use and carryover to the following crop.
Economics often dictate crop sequence but where choices are available, soybeans should follow crops other than soybeans or other legumes. Continuous cropping with soybeans is generally not recommended because weed, disease, insect and nematode problems can build up and significantly reduce yields. Although it may be difficult because of land availability and other factors, growing soybeans no more than 2 years in succession is probably best for successful production.
Typical rotations in Kentucky include: 1) corn-soybeans, and 2) corn-wheat or barley-soybeans (double-cropped) which provides for 3 acres of grain production on 2 acres of land every 2 years. In this last system, after corn harvest, wheat or barley is seeded. Following small grain harvest, soybeans are immediately planted. This rotation is completed by growing corn following the soybean crop.

Table 2. Effect of Rotation on Crop Yields.
Previous Crop
Yields (Bu/Acre)*
Soybeans Corn
Soybeans 37 146
Corn 41 137
Rotation Advantage +4 +9
*Data for each crop has been averaged over several years.

Tillage Systems
Many tillage systems, involving different tillage and planting equipment, can be used to prepare soil for planting soybeans. Methods ranging from complete tillage (conventional) to reduced tillage and no-tillage can be successfully used, but different methods are best for different situations. Since fuel, labor and equipment expenses are involved, tillage should be performed for a specific reason. It has been said that proper tillage is the least tillage necessary to produce the desired crop as efficiently as possible.
A tillage survey conducted in 1986 by the Kentucky Crop and Livestock Reporting Service indicated that of the total soybean acreage planted, 54%, 20% and 26% were planted using conventional tillage, minimum tillage and no-tillage, respectively. Conventional tillage has been gradually reduced and conservation tillage planted soybeans have increased during the last 15 years.

Seedbed Preparation
A good seedbed provides a favorable place for seed to germinate and roots to get moisture and nutrients. Traditionally soybeans have been planted in a seedbed that has been tilled several times. However, you can do a good job of planting with a minimum of tillage and it is false that the only good seedbed is a tillage prepared seedbed. Regardless of the tillage system used, soybean seeds need a soil that is warm (65°F or above), moist, well supplied with air, smooth, free of living weeds and firm enough to give good contact between the seed and soil for uniform, rapid emergence.

Conventional Tillage
The traditional tillage system for soybeans consists of plowing with a moldboard plow in the fall or spring followed by one or more secondary tillage operations. However, recent years have seen more reduced tillage and fewer secondary tillage operations. Primary tillage with the moldboard plow is being replaced by the chisel plow and other subsurface tillage equipment. Primary tillage, if used, should be only deep enough to perform required functions. Reasons for plowing or heavily tilling a soil for soybeans are: 1) removal of residue to increase soil temperature; 2) to improve air or water movement in wet, fine-textured soils; 3) weed control; 4) leveling or smoothing land; 5) removal of compacted layers; and 6) insect and disease control.

No-tillage soybeans have gained acceptance in the state, particularly with double-cropping where it provides a timely, efficient method of planting. In 1986, 85% of the double-cropped soybean acreage was planted using no-tillage.
No-till soybeans have many advantages: 1) soil erosion control; 2) better maintenance of soil tilth and productivity; 3) soil moisture conservation; 4) less energy and labor required;
5) reduced costs of production; and 6) yields equal to or higher than conventionally planted soybeans (Table 3).
No-tillage does require a more intense level of management. With fewer alternatives to correct errors, more management ability is needed for no-till to be successful.
Soybeans have been successfully no-tilled into various crop residues (small grains, corn, grain sorghum and soybeans) and winter cover crops. However, no-till planting of soybeans into a perennial grass or legume sod is presently limited in Kentucky. This system has presented more risks since herbicides for no-till soybeans in sod have not been as successful and consistent as desired. For more information on no-tillage, get a copy of AGR-101, No-till Soybeans, from your local county Extension office.

Table 3. Yield Comparisons of Tillage Systems for Soybeans in Kentucky.
Tillage System1
Soybean Yield (Bu/A)
1968-692 1976-783 1980-852,3
No-till - S.C. 42 36
Minimum-till - S.C. 36
Conventional-S.C. 39 35
No-till - D.C. 35 27
Minimum-till - D.C. 35 26
Conventional - D.C. 33 24
1S.C. = single-crop and D.C. = double-crop.
2Planted following previous crop residue.
3Planted following wheat stubble.

Average annual rainfall in Kentucky of approximately 45 inches would indicate irrigation is not needed. However, this rainfall is not evenly distributed throughout the year and quite often is insufficient during the growing season when soybean peak water usage can reach 1 to 2 inches/week. This peak moisture usage period occurs during flowering and pod fill.
Presently, only a limited number of acres of soybeans are irrigated; however, interest has increased somewhat in recent years. The major reasons for the limited irrigation in Kentucky are lack of a readily available water supply and the erratic yearly rainfall patterns.
Studies are assessing the short and long-term economics of soybean irrigation in the state (Table 4). Data from 1980-86 readily show the economic importance of irrigation during years when moisture shortages existed during the growing season. In other years, irrigation would not be profitable. The average yield response achieved for the 6-years would be marginally profitable depending on irrigation costs and soybean prices. Therefore, it is difficult to determine whether an irrigation system used only for soybeans would be economically profitable. If irrigation were used for other crops such as corn, soybean irrigation would appear more feasible since the investment would be spread over several crops.

Table 4. Soybean Irrigation Results1
Year2 Response Soybean Yield (Bu/A)
Non-irrigated Irrigated Yield
1980 31 43 +11
1981 67 71 +4
1982 60 63 +3
1983 9 59 +50
1984 44 56 +12
1986 32 52 +20
Avg. 41 57 +16
1Research and Education Center - Princeton, Ky.
21983 = prolonged moisture stress.
1980, 1984, 1986 = periods of moisture stress.
1985 = no data due to hail damage.

Suggested References and Related Publications
University of Kentucky Publications
AGR-91, Cropland Rotations in Kentucky
AGR-101, No-Till Soybeans
AGR-129, Soybean Production in Kentucky-Part II: Seed Selection, Variety Selection and Fertilization
AGR-130, Soybean Production in Kentucky-Part III: Planting Practices and Double-Cropping
AGR-131, Soybean Production in Kentucky-Part IV: Weed, Disease and Insect Control
AGR-132, Soybean Production in Kentucky-Part V: Harvesting, Drying, Storage and Marketing
4BB-04PO, Kentucky 4-H Soybean Project
ID-9, Salvage Feeds for Beef Cattle
OPTIONS-1O, Options for Kentucky Farmers-Soybeans
Other Publications
Modern Soybean Production (Available from American Soybean Association, St. Louis, MO) (For sale only)
Soybean Irrigation (multi-state publication) (Available from Mississippi State University, Miss. State, MISS) (For sale only)