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Guidelines for Choosing Hedges for Kentucky Yards

M.L. Witt, R.E. McNiel, W. Dunwell, W.M. Fountain, W. Mesner

Hedges and screens can add beauty and privacy to the home landscape. Some people clip hedges for a formal look, and others choose to keep them loosely informal with arching branches. Depending upon the height of the plant materials used in your hedge, they serve many uses:

  1. They are used to screen out undesirable views and provide privacy for the outdoor family living area.
  2. Hedges are used to outline small living areas and to direct traffic within the yard.
  3. They are used as barriers to keep children and animals in or out of the yard.
  4. Hedges are used to mark boundaries such as along property lines, walks, or drives. This is effective in keeping pedestrians on the walk.
  5. They serve as windbreaks and help reduce road noise and dust.
  6. They serve as a background for plantings of perennials, annuals, or other landscape plants.
  7. Birds and other wildlife find hedges and screen plantings a source of food and a valuable refuge during inclement weather.

Figure 1.—A row of crabapples provides a pleasant view from this bank—much more attractive than the adjacent parking lot view, which the trees screen.

Selection of Hedges

If placed close enough, any plant will form a hedge. However, the growth habits of some plants are more conducive than others for hedge-type growth.

Evergreen plants, both broad leaved and narrow leaved, are effective year-around screens, but they are also generally more expensive to install. They stay dense and green all winter long, so you will have the benefit of privacy throughout the whole year. Yews, hollies, and boxwoods make excellent evergreen hedges. Hemlock is a conifer that can be left natural in form,or it can be clipped without the problem of shoot dieback.

Figure 2.—For a thick, interwoven shield of branches, stagger young plants in a double row and place the plants in each row 2-4 feet apart, depending upon the mature size of the plants.

Informal flowering or berrying shrubs are often used as hedges if a year-around visual boundary is not a must. Annual thinning of this type of hedge is necessary to keep it healthy and in vigorous flower-fruit production. Do not shear these plants, but allow them to assume their natural shape. Flowering quinces, forsythias, mock oranges, and barberries are common hedges of this type.

Figure 3.—Prevent wind damage to plants by tying them to a horizontal wire.

Figure 4.—For a formal hedge, shorten newly planted shrubs by half after planting.

Trees can be giant hedges and windbreaks simultaneously. They allow air to filter through and slow it down gradually. Lindens, katsura trees, crabapples, and arborvitaes are examples of tree hedges. An informal staggered arrangement of katsura trees makes a grove-type hedge that can be seen through.

Mixed plantings of trees and shrubs (evergreen and deciduous) make very attractive screens and provide variety that a single plant-type cannot.

Planting Hedges

Plants may be purchased growing in containers, balled and burlapped (B and B), or bare-root. Bare-root material should be planted only during the spring. Container or B and B plants may be planted anytime the soil is workable. Evergreens should be purchased only as B and B or containerized nursery stock.

Spacings for individual plants vary with the type of nursery stock and their use. For low formal hedges, space the plants 12 to 18 inches apart. Larger plants may be spaced 18 to 30 inches apart. Conifers may be spaced 4 to 6 feet apart if they grow wide at the base. The time required to achieve a hedge effect can be reduced by planting on narrower spacings.

For a double row of hedging, space the rows 18 inches apart. Stagger the plants so no two are directly in front of each other.

A length of cord or twine is useful in defining the location of your row or rows.

Training-Pruning Hedges

The length of time necessary to achieve the desired size of your hedge depends upon the type of plant chosen and its vigor. A dense hedge must be developed slowly. Never try to make the hedge reach its effective height in a single season.

Rapidly growing plants such as privet should be pruned severely the first and second season after planting. Shorten the plants by one-third to one-half their height after planting and after the first growing season. Subsequently, stems should be cut back at least 6 inches every time they grow 1 foot until the desired height is reached. During the entire life of the plant, thinning cuts need to be made to remove old wood.

Figure 5.—Thinning cuts are made as close to the soil as possible. Choose the oldest branches for removal at ground level. Remove any branches that rub others or tend to crowd toward the middle of the plant.

A good hedge is well filled at the base. In formal pruning, trim so that the base is wider than the top. Otherwise, the base of the hedge will be shaded and become thin and open.

Informal plants should be pruned by thinning branches within the shrub and at ground level.

Figure 6.—Keep the base of the plant wider than the top, since light and air make for compact growth top to bottom.

Pine, spruce, and fir screens should be pruned annually by removing the tip bud or shoot on each branch. This technique encourages more compact, denser growth.

Broad-leaved evergreens such as hollies should be pruned just enough to keep the branches in line. Always cut back to side branches or buds.


New plantings should be cultivated frequently or mulched to keep them free of weeds and grass. An annual fertilization of 2 to 4 pounds of 10-10-10 or similar fertilizer per 100 feet of hedge will help to maintain healthy, vigorous plants. The best time to fertilize woody plants is in the late fall. Fertilizer applications should not begin until the first year after planting.

Rejuvenation of Hedges

Overgrown, neglected hedges should be removed and replaced with a new, desirable hedge. Neglected hedges are generally impossible to rejuvenate. With the exception of yews, most evergreen plants will not produce new shoots from the old, brown growth. Cutting plants back to within 6 to 12 inches of the soil line is usually a waste of time. Privets are an exception.

Guidelines for Choosing Hedging-Types of Plant Materials
Small Hedges (1 to 5 feet)
PlantEvergreen or DeciduousFlowersFruitsComments
Abelia, Glossy (Abelia x grandiflora)
'Prostrata': a prostrate form
'Sherwoodii': a selected dwarf form to 3 ft
'Edward Goucher': has abundant lavender-pink flowers
Semi-evergreenWhite-flushedZone 6 plant, but in unusually bad winters, may show dieback. Glossy leaves. Blooms almost continually in summer. Use as informal hedge. Excellent for textural effects. May be a little slow to make a thick hedge. Used often as bank cover, massing, or facing plant. Combines well with broadleaf evergreens.
Barberry, Japanese (Berberis thunbergii)
'Atropurpurea': leaves, dark purple.
'Aurea': leaves, citron-yellow.
'Crimson Pygmy': dwarf form, red to purplish leaves in full sun.
'Kobold': dwarf form, green leaves.
'Rosy Glow': green-white leaves overcast with red, new growth is exceptionally red.
'Erecta': upright, compact form. A 28-year-old plant never clipped was 5 ft tall, 10 ft across.
DeciduousYellow outside; 2 to 5 flowered clusters, not showy since borne under leaves.Red, lustrousForms dense, impenetrable border because of single spines.
Boxwood, Korean (Buxus microphylla koreana)Evergreen, but foliage turns brown in winter.Blooms early March, not showy but fragrant.Capsule fruitWhen mature, is 2 x wide as high. Grows to about 4-ft ht. Leaves less than 1/2 in. long or 1/4 in. wide. Three types available in Kentucky. Glossy, wide-leaved cultivar (Wintergreen) is not as hardy as dull-leaved cultivar. Small-leaved form that remains green during winter ('Tide Hill') is not as available as the other two types.
Cinquefoil, Bush (Potentilla fruticosa)
Many cultivars are available, ranging in flower color between white-yellow-orange.
DeciduousBright buttercup yellow, 1 in. across, June through Sept. Place in full sun for best flowers.Not outstanding. Their mass may leave plant with a brown appearance by late summer.Dainty, clean foliage. Use as shrub border, edging plant, low hedge, massing plant, or other uses. Fibrous-rooted. Withstands poor, dry soils.
Cotoneaster, Cranberry (Cotoneaster apiculatus)DeciduousSolitary, pinkScarlet, round, very attractive, Aug-Sept, borne singly.Performs best in full sun, but will tolerate some shade. Used as bank cover, facer plant in shrub border, and ground or large area cover. Will reach 3-ft ht and 3-6 ft spread.
Cranberry Bush, Compact American (Viburnum trilobum 'Compactum')DeciduousWhite, mid- to late May. Up to 4 in. across.Scarlet, Sept-winter. Edible, use for preserves.Grows 4-5 ft tall. Neat habit of growth. Plant in sun or partial shade.
Cranberry Bush, Compact European (Viburnum opulus 'Compactum')DeciduousWhite, mid-May, 2-3 in. diameter. Combination of sterile and fertile flowers in same inflorescence.Bright red, berrylike drupes. Ripen Sept-Oct and persist into winter.'Compactum' should reach 4-5 ft.
Deutzia, Slender (Deutzia gracilis)DeciduousPure white, 1/2 to 3/4 in. across, mid-to late May. Free flowering. Panicles may be 1 1/2 to 3 in. long.Capsule. Many small seeds.Low, broad mound, 2-4 ft ht, 3-4 ft wide. Slender, ascending branches. Graceful shrub that should be left in natural form.
Grape Holly, Oregon Grape (Mahonia aquifolium)
'Compactum': dwarf form, usually reaches 2-3 ft.
'Moseri': pale green leaves the first year are tinted with pink.
Evergreen, but sometimes killed by extremely cold weather.Bright yellow, late April.Blue-black berry. Aug-Sept and may persist into Dec.Grows 3-6 ft ht, 3-5 ft spread. Place in moist, well-drained acid soil. Place in location where it is protected from winter sun.
Japanese Holly (Ilex crenata)
'Glory' and 'Green Island': very hardy male types
EvergreenDull, greenish white, May-June. Male and female plants. Not showy.Berrylike black drupes, Sept-Oct. Only female plants have fruit.Place in light, moist, well-drained acid soil. Sun or shade adaptable. 'Green Island' is usually twice as broad as tall: 3-ft ht, 6-ft spread when mature. 'Glory' width is 3 x its height. Many cultivars, but most will have some stem injury during severe winters.
Juniper, Armstrong Chinese (Juniperus chinensis 'Armstrong')EvergreenMale flower, orange-yellow; female flowers, yellowish.Male cones, yellow or brownish; female cones ripen second year. Whitish blue and downy when forming: brown when mature.Place in full sun or partial shade, moist, well-drained location. Phomopsis blight may be a disease problem during wet springs. 'Armstrong' is as wide as high. Soft, gray-green leaves. Branches spread horizontally.
Privet, Lodense European (Ligustrum vulgare 'Lodense')DeciduousWhite, heavy scent is objectionable.Lustrous, black berrylike drupe. Ripens in Sept.Low, dense, compact privet that reaches 5 ft tall; can be cut to the ground to control height when it becomes overgrown.
Privet, Regal (Ligustrum obtusifolium var. Regelianum)DeciduousWhite, unpleasantly fragrant, early June.Blue-black, bloomy fruit. Berrylike drupes ripen in Sept. Effective all winter.Grows 4-5 ft tall. Branches spread horizontally. Probably the best growth habit of the privets. Can be cut to the ground to control height when it becomes overgrown.
Rose, Japanese, Saltspray or Rugosa Rose (Rosa rugosa)
'Alba': single, white flower
'Albo-plena': double, white flower
'Plena': double, fuchsia-purple flower
'Rosea': single, rose flower
DeciduousRose-purple to white (see cultivars), 2 1/2 - 3 1/2 in. across. Fragrant. June-Aug.Hip is urn-shaped structure, 1 in. across, mature Aug through fall.Grows 4-6 ft tall, 4-6 ft wide. Canes are stout, densely prickly, form dense mat. Valuable plant for difficult sites. Place in sunny, open area. Slightly acid soil is best. Salt tolerant. One of most trouble-free roses. Not as prone to insect and disease problems as hybrid-type trees.
Spirea, Japanese White (Spiraea albiflora)DeciduousDense, white corymbs. Late June and July. Flowers on new wood, so easily rejuvenated each spring.Smooth, follicle (Follicles are dry, one-celled, many-seeded fruits).Grows 1 1/2 ft tall, rounded. Used effectively as a filler in a shrub border. Far superior to straggly, unkempt spireas.
Spirea, Anthony Waterer (Spiraea x bumalda 'Anthony Waterer')DeciduousDeep pink, mid-June to Aug. Borne in 4-6 in. flat-topped corymbs.Dry, brown follicleFast grower to 2-3 ft tall, 3-5 ft wide. Broad, flat-topped; densely twiggy; erect branches. New growth in reddish purple. Seen a lot in older landscapes.
Spirea, Snowmound (Spiraea nipponica 'Snowmound')DeciduousWhite, late May to JuneGrows 3-5 ft high and as wide. Maintains neat, dense growth habit. Leaves are dark green above, bluish-green below.
St. Johnswort (Hypericum x 'Hidcote')Semi-evergreenGolden-yellow, 2-in. diameter. July.Grows to 18 in. tall and as wide
Yew, Dense (Taxus x media 'Densiformis')EvergreenRed berry is poisonous to cattle.Compact, slow growing, compact foliage that is fine-textured. Tolerates regular pruning. Does not tolerate poorly-drained soils.
Medium-Sized Hedges and Screens (6-10 feet tall)
Aralia, Five Leaf (Acanthopanax sieboldianus)DeciduousSmall, greenish-white.Black. Found only on female plants.Beneath leaf scars, 1-2 prickles on stem make this a good barrier plant. Male and female plants. Will withstand poor growing conditions and a shady site.
Barberry, Mentor (Berberis x mentorensis)Semi-evergreen (holds leaves very late).InsignificantYellow-orange-dull red.Grows 5 ft tall, 5-7 ft wide. Stems are three-spined, making it impenetrable. Rapid grower.
Bayberry, Northern (Myrica pensylvanica)DeciduousNot showy. Late March-early April.Gray, small, waxy. Male and female plants required for good fruit development on female.Average height is 9 ft. Varies between 5 and 12 ft. Grows well on poor soils. Yields wax used for making bayberry candles. Withstands salt spray.
Beautybush (Kolkwitzia amabilis)DeciduousPink with yellow throat, bell-shaped. Late May-early June.Bristly, 1/4 in. long capsule.Grows 6-10 ft ht. Vase-shaped shrub, somewhat fountainlike in appearance. Place in full sun for best flowers. Old stems should be pruned out each year to renew plant. Flowers on old wood. Fast grower. Main reason for growing is its flowers; otherwise, is one of less desirable plants.
Boxwood, Common (Buxus sempervirens)
'Pullman' grows to 6-ft ht
EvergreenInsignificantInsignificantDense, Compact. Slow growing. Broad-round in form. Needs well-drained soil, partial shade. May be susceptible to winter leaf burn.
Burning Bush, Compact (Euonymus alata 'Compacta')DeciduousInsignificant flowers, yellow-green. May to early June.Red capsules, Sept. through late fall. Not especially showy since borne under leaves. Seed is ornamental part of fruit. Seeds have orange-red coats, which show when capsule opens.Corky wings that characterize E. alata are usually not as pronounced. Fine-textured branches. Compact, rounded habit. Ultimately should grow to 10 ft. Leaves brilliant red fall color. Can be pruned back, hard to control size.
Cotoneaster, Spreading (Cotoneaster divaricatus)DeciduousRose, not spectacular. Late May to early June.Red to dark red. Early Sept through Nov. Handsome fruiter.Grows to 6-ft ht, 6-8 ft spread. Medium to fast grower. Multistemmed shrub and outer branches are long, slender, and tend to droop. Unexcelled for summer and fall leaf color.
Euonymus, Paulii (Euonymus kiautschovica 'Paulii')Partly evergreen. Foliage may burn and look unkempt in winter.Greenish-white, borne in August.Orange-red seed coat. Mature in Nov.Spreading shrub. 'Paulii' appears to be one of the hardier cultivars of this species.
Forsythia, Golden Bells (Forsythia x intermedia)
'Spring Glory': produces great mass of flowers.
DeciduousPale to deep yellow.Brown capsule. Insignificant.Early spring color is strongest point. Otherwise, a less desirable plant. Grows 8-10 ft ht, 10-12 ft spread. Rank grower, upright and arching canes. Always needs pruning (thinning and heading back). Flowers killed during very cold winters.
Honeysuckle, Winter (Lonicera fragrantissima)DeciduousCreamy white, lemon-scented. Late March-early April.Red berry, late May-early June.Fast grower, 6-10 ft ht, 6-10 ft spread. Irregular grower with tangled mass of slender, recurving branches.
Honeysuckle, Tatarian (Lonicera tatarica)
'Alba': pure white flowers
'Arnold Red': dark red flowers
'Grandiflora': large white flowers
'Lutea': pink flowers, yellow fruit
'Parvifolia': white flowers
'Rosea': rosy-pink flowers
'Sibirica': deep rose flowers
Virginalis': rose-pink flowers
'Zabelii': dark red flowers
DeciduousPink to whiteRed berry. June-Aug.Grows 10-12 ft ht, 10-ft spread. Upright, strongly multistemmed. Outer branches arch. Overall effect is dense, twiggy mass. Will seed (spread) in the landscape.
Inkberry (Ilex glabra)EvergreenWhite, male and female flowers separately.Berrylike, black drupe, borne in Sept. Often hidden by leaves.Grows 6-8 ft ht, 8-10 ft spread. Erect evergreen shrub often loses lower leaves and becomes open with age. Apparently spreads by underground stems. Is the only holly to sucker in this manner.
Junipers (Juniperus chinensis)
'Pfitzeriana': Pfitzer juniper. Rapidly growing. Wide, ascending branches while young. A graceful mound with age. Width to 10 ft.
'Hetzii': Hetz juniper. Rapidly growing. Gray-blue foliage. Width of 10-12 ft.
'Mint Julep': Mint julep juniper. Wide-arching branches. Rapid development. Dark green foliage. Wide with age.
Mockorange, Sweet (Philadelphus coronarius)DeciduousWhite, fragrant. Late May-early June.Four-valved capsule.Grows 10-12 ft ht, same spread. Large rounded shrub. Often leggy, straggly. Fast grower. Bark exfoliates, orange-brown.
Pyracantha, Scarlet Firethorn (Pyracantha coccinea)
'Mohave': one of hardiest cultivars but has shown some winter damage.
'Kasan': generally hardy but has shown some winter damage.
Semi-evergreenWhite, early June, 2-3 in. long clusters.Orange-red, berrylike. Ripen in Sept. Persist into winter.Full sun best for fruiting. Perform best in well-drained soil. Fire blight can be serious. Scab affects fruit. Branches are thorny. Orange-fruited types are usually more cold tolerant than red- and yellow-fruited cultivars.
Quince, Flowering (Chaenomeles speciosa)DeciduousWhite to scarlet. Mid- to late April.Yellowish-green. Ripen in Oct. Bitter in taste but can be used for preserves and jellies.Excellent plant when in flower. Otherwise, problematic in collecting leaves and trash in twiggy branches. Thorny. Requires low pH soil (5.5-6.0). Grows 6-10 ft ht, 6-10 ft spread.
Burkwood Viburnum (Viburnum x burkwoodii)
Semi-evergreenClustered, 3 1/2 in. wide, white. Fragrant. Mid-to late April.Red, changing to black. July-Aug.Grows 8-10 ft ht and about 2/3's spread. Place in moist, well-drained soil, slightly acid (6.5 pH). Avoid sulfur sprays around viburnums since many are defoliated by sulfur.
Carlcephalum Viburnum, Fragrant Viburnum (Viburnum x carlcephalum)DeciduousWhite with a little red. In large globular heads, 5 in. across. Fragrant (spicy scent).Red, changing to black.Grows 6-10 ft ht, 6-10 ft spread. Open, loose habit of growth. Autumn foliage is brilliant.
Koreanspice Viburnum (Viburnum carlesii)DeciduousWhite. Late April-early May. Semi-snowball type flowers. Pleasantly fragrant.Red, changing to black.Grows 6-ft ht (possibly 8 ft), 5-ft spread (possibly 8 ft). Rounded, dense shrub. Stiff, upright branches. Slow grower.
Doublefile Viburnum (Viburnum plicatum var. tomentosum)
'Mariesii': very large flowers. One of best fruiters.
DeciduousWhite. No fragrance. Mid-May. Borne in 2-4 in., flat-topped clusters above leaves.Bright red, changing to black. July-Aug.Grows 8-10 ft ht, 9-12 ft spread. Rounded to broad-rounded at maturity. Horizontal, tiered branching creates a layered effect. Leaves are reddish-purple in fall. Very choice shrub, elegant.
Tea Viburnum (Viburnum setigerum)DeciduousWhite, mid- to late May. Not as ornamental as other viburnums.Long drupe, bright red. Oct-late fall. One of best fruiting viburnums.Grows 8-12 ft ht, 6-8 ft spread. Slow grower. Received name from use of leaves for tea. One of best viburnums for fall foliage color.
Anderson Yew (Taxus cuspidata)EvergreenInconspicuousRed berries. Poisonous to livestock and children (seeds and foliage).Spreads to 6 ft or more. Will not tolerate poorly drained soils.
Brown Yew (Taxus x media 'Brownii')EvergreenInconspicuousRed berries. Poisonous to livestock and children (seeds and foliage).Round in form. At least as wide as tall. Tolerates regular pruning.
Tall Hedges and Screens (10-foot height and above)
Arborvitae, American or White Cedar (Thuja occidentalis)
'Nigra': pyramidal form; foliage remains dark green in winter.
'Techny': pyramidal form; excellent dark green foliage year-round.
EvergreenSolitary, inconspicuousFemale cones are 1/2 in. long.Can grow to 40-ft ht, but usually less around Kentucky, 10-15 ft spread. Short, ascending branches end in flat, spreading horizontal sprays. May be single- or multiple-trunked. Susceptible to strong wind, snow, or ice damage. Tolerant of limestone soils. Susceptible to bagworms and red spider mites.
Arborvitae, Oriental (Platycladus orientalis)EvergreenSolitary, inconspicuousFleshy cones, bluish before ripening.Densely branched. Grows 18-25 ft ht, 10-12 ft spread. Conical or columnar habit when young. With age, becomes more loose and open. Susceptible to strong wind, snow, or ice damage. Susceptible to bagworms and red spider mites.
Buckthorn, Tallhedge (Rhamnus frangula 'Columnaris')DeciduousCreamy green, inconspicuous. Attract bees.Berrylike drupe. Red to purple-black. July-Sept.Grows 12-18 ft ht, 8-12 ft spread. Low-branched tree; quite gangly and open. Susceptible to wilt and insects. Cannot tolerate foot traffic near it or heavy, compacted soils.
Cedar, Hogan's (Thuja plicata 'Fastigiata')EvergreenInconspicuous. Female flowers pink. Male flowers yellow.Cones 1/2 in. long. Green in summer, brown in winter.Grows 30-40 ft ht, 15-ft spread. Narrow pyramidal tree prefers well-drained, fertile soil. Susceptible to strong wind, snow, or ice damage.
Dogwood, Cornelian Cherry (Cornus mas)DeciduousYellow, early-mid March when very little is blooming.Bright, cherry-red, long drupe, July.Grows 20-25 ft ht, 15-20 ft spread. Transplants well when young. Very durable dogwood for Kentucky.
Dogwood, Gray (Cornus racemosa)DeciduousWhite, late May. Borne in 2-in. panicles, effective one wk.White drupe, 1/4 in. Aug-Sept. After fruits fall, red-pink inflorescences are fully exposed.Grows 10-15 ft ht, 10-15 ft spread. Suckers profusely from roots and can form large colony of plants. Multistemmed, erect growing.
Hawthorn, Cockspur (Crataegus crusgalli)DeciduousWhite, mid-late May. Effective for one wk, 2-3 in. diameter.Deep red, drupe, 1/2 in. diameter. Ripens Sept-Oct.Grows 20-30 ft ht, 20-35 ft spread. Horizontal, thorny branches are low and wide spreading. Thorns are 2 in. long and dangerous where children are present.
Hawthorn, Lavalle (Crataegus x Lavallei)DeciduousWhite, 3/4 in. diameter. Late May. Borne in 3 in. diameter clusters.Brick-red to orange-red, 3/4 in. diameter. Ripens in Nov.Dense, oval-headed tree, grows 15-30 ft tall.
Hawthorn, Washington (Crataegus phaenopyrum)
'Clark': heavy fruiter
'Fastigiata': columnar type
'Vaughn': excellent glossy fruit
DeciduousWhite, 1/2 in. diameter. Borne in many-flowered clusters.Bright, glossy red, 1/4 in. Diameter. Sept-Oct.Grows 20-25 ft ht, 20-25 ft spread. Thorny tree.
Hemlock, Canadian (Tsuga canadensis)EvergreenMale flowers, light yellow; female flowers, pale green.Slender cones, 1/2-1 in. long, brown at maturity.Grows 40-70 ft ht, 25-35 ft spread. Pyramidal shape. Hemlocks are very susceptible to drought in injury. Plants may die during extended dry periods. Very graceful plant. Is open in habit so it does not block view 100 percent.
Holly, American (Ilex opaca)EvergreenMale flowers occur in 3-9 flower clusters. Female flowers are solitary. Dull green-white.Berrylike. Dull red. Oct.Conical to columnar shape. Grows 15-30 ft ht, 18-20 ft spread. Bothered by a variety of insects and diseases including holly leaf miner. Male and female trees required for fruit set.
Holly, Foster (Ilex x attenuata 'Fosteri')EvergreenInconspicuousSmall, clustered, scarlet.Loosely branched. Foster #2 is the best selection. Compact, pyramidal growth habit.
Keteleer Juniper (Juniperus chinensis 'Keteleeri')
Evergreen1/4-3/8 in. diameter, gray turning to blue-black.Pyramidal. Dark green in color.
Canaert Juniper (Juniperus virginiana 'Canaertii')Evergreen1/8 in. diameter, blue-grayHeavy fruit production that does not cause a weed problem.
Katsura Tree (Cercidiphyllum japonica)DeciduousMale and female flowers separate. Late Mar-early April. Inconspicuous.Grows to 40 ft ht, spread is variable. Male trees tend to be upright in growth habit. Female trees are more spreading. Excellent, attractive tree. Must be grown on a good soil that is moist but well drained.
Maple, Amur (Acer tataricum ginnala)DeciduousInconspicuous. Yellowish-white. Fragrant.Samaras hang on late into fall.Grows 15-18 ft ht, equal spread. Multistemmed tree. Rounded outline. Can be induced into rapid growth by optimum fertilizer and moisture. Best coloration seed in full sun locations. Withstands heavy pruning.
PLANT Maple, Hedge (Acer campestre)DeciduousGreenish, May. Inconspicuous.Samaras have spreading wings.Round-headed tree. Grows 25-35 ft ht, equal spread. Slow grower. Withstands severe pruning. Excellent maple and should be used more.
Yew, Hicks (Taxus x media 'Hicksii')EvergreenInconspicuousFleshy, red. Poisonous to livestock and children (seeds and foliage).Male and female clones. Columnar habit. Grows 20 ft ht and stays slender. Excellent plant for total screening and takes up very little space. Requires well-drained soil.

Arborvitae hedges are seldom consistent in height.

Chinese Privet (Ligustrum sinense)

Buckthorn, Tallhedge

Burning Bush (Compact)

Euonymus, Paulii

Clipped Mentor Barberry

Washington Hawthorn

Canadian Hemlock

Clipped Fragrant Honeysuckle

Unclipped Fragrant Honeysuckle

Hornbeam (Carpinus betulus) makes an excellent tall screen, but clearwing borer is an insect problem that eventually kills the tree. Thus its uses should be limited.

Dieback of Japanese hollies is common if the hardiest of cultivars are not chosen.

Canaertii' Juniper

Sheared Columnar Juniper

'Keteleeri' Juniper

California Privet (Ligustrum ovalifolium)

Clipped Forsythia Hedge

Ibolium Privet (Ligustrum ibolium)

Flowering Quince

Hedges of flowering trees like this Serviceberry (Amelanchier sp) can be used to break the monotony of a long wall.

Koreanspice Viburnum

Doublefile Viburnum

Anglojap Yew Taxus sp. spreading hedge pruned to 6-8 feet wide.

Hicks Yew, unpruned

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