ISSUED: 8-78
George A. Duncan, Extension Specialist in Agricultural Engineering
J.H. Smiley, Extension Specialist in Agronomy


The mechanization of production and marketing procedures for burley tobacco has experienced little change during the past 50 years. Burley tobacco continues to require large amounts of hand labor with minimum mechanization. Both the availability and cost of intensive hand labor required at peak seasons are forcing many producers to seek labor-saving techniques.

About one-half of the labor required for the production of burley tobacco involves stripping and preparation for market. Leaves of air cured burley tobacco are removed from the stalk, held in an oriented fashion and tied with a wrapper leaf into "hands" or bundles. Burley tobacco producers and tobacco research personnel have logically reasoned that considerable labor and time might be saved if burley tobacco could be successfully marketed in an untied or loose-leaf form. Flue-cured tobacco is marketed in a loose.leaf, unoriented manner, packaged in a burlap sheet. Canadian and other types of tobacco are packaged and marketed in a compressed bale. Interest by many producers in loose-leaf packaging of burley tobacco has increased in recent years. Research on loose-leaf methods for burley tobacco and exploratory packaging of burley tobacco in loose-leaf forms have coincided with this increased interest.

Information is available from controlled experiments on labor requirements for packaging by conventional and loose.leaf methods, on moisture variables in the loose-leaf package, and on the technical and mechanical aspects of loose-leaf handling. Two major domestic manufacturers have cooperated in the evaluation of loose-leaf burley tobacco relative to the handling and manufacturing aspects from warehouse floor through the processor.

Several aspects of loose-leaf versus conventional handling of burley tobacco have not been thoroughly considered. For example, the effect of loose-leaf burley on export sales has not been evaluated. One might reason that there would be an advantage if the price were more competitive or a disadvantage if less useful. While American burley ks in demand for the export markets because of its high quality, price per pound is always a factor.

Loose-leaf packaging and marketing of burley tobacco would represent a departure from traditional methods of handling a type of tobacco which has been presented for sale in hand-tied form since 1904. The initial response to such a change may be foreseen in part by recognizing the problems or difficulties such a change might cause. Examples of potential problem areas include: producers having to learn how to handle loose-leaf burley and bear the costs of acquisition of new equipment and materials to make the change;and warehousemen, graders, and buyers having to adapt to evaluating a new package of burley tobacco. On the other hand, there are probable advantages to loose-leaf packaging such as lower production costs and easier physical handling of packages through the trade channels.

An expanded bale marketing program has been approved by the Secretary of Agriculture for the 1979-80 marketing year for educational and evaluational purposes. The program will be administered by the various federal and state agencies (ASCS, AMS, CCC, etc.). Details and procedures are available from these various agencies.

This publication provides educational information and plans for packaging and handling burley at the farm as part of the 1979-80 bale program.

Selecting and Building the Bale Press Equipment

The preparation of burley in bale form requires special bale press equipment and methods. The design and use of this equipment has been made as simple and economical as possible for farm conditions while still enabling the preparation of neat, firm packages of burley leaves and protecting the quality of the product.

Features of Bale Press Equipment:

The design and operation of bale press equipment has been based on similar equipment already used with other types of tobacco in the United States and foreign countries. The currently designed bale press features: (1) notches for positioning and holding the tie twine, (2) an open top to receive the oriented leaves, (3) a lightweight and movable presshead for compressing the tobacco, (4) an openable front door to permit tying of the bale while under compression and removal of the completed bale, and (5) the capability of being built in single or multiple box units to match various farm stripping conditions.

The bale presses are constructed of exterior 1/2-inch A-C grade plywood and dressed 2" x 4" lumber along with some small steel pieces and hardware. Construction methods mostly involve the sawing and nailing of the wooden materials with some hole drilling, cutting, and welding of the steel pieces, depending on the type of bale press built.

An individual bale box is recommended for each grade of tobacco being stripped. This permits each grade of leaves to be continuously placed into a box to protect the leaves from excessive drying in heated stripping rooms and to reduce the potential for mixing and contamination with foreign objects. If too few boxes are available, some leaves will have to be piled aside and held until a box is empty, thus allowing drying and potential contamination problems. (The use of the bale boxes in the stripping room is described later.)

The bale boxes can be built and used as single units or connected together as multiple-box units. Single-box units offer flexibility in crowded stripping rooms and are easily moved. Three-box units have evolved as a suitable size for construction and handling while providing three basic stalk group separations in the stripping room and satisfying the tobacco companies' minimum preferences for grade separation (4 or more boxes and grades are equally feasible).

Bumper-type car jacks or air cylinders are shown as primary means to provide the compression force required. Studies have shown that 1,000 to 1,200 pounds of vertical force are needed to compress burley leaves in the bale box to the required bale density and firmness. The use of hydraulic cylinders (oil type) and components has been avoided to eliminate potential oil leakage and damage to the tobacco. Besides, the proper hookup of hydraulics is generally more costly and difficult than the air method for this application and too great a compression force produces bruised tobacco and "caked" bales.

The car jack presshead is the most economical and workable design recommended at present. The tubular post type of jack with notches and an extension handle seems best. Select a good quality, heavy duty jack for maximum life. The life of some jacks for bale press use has been very short. Some units used in previous farm experiments wore the notches and pawls beyond use in a few days while others have been used during a season and for several thousand pounds of tobacco. A special heat-treated jack for longer life is being made available this year.

Alternate construction plans are shown for fabricating the car jack pressheads. Both require some welding to provide the necessary strength, rigidity, and safety of operation. Any farm welding equipment or local repair shop can perform the required welding.

The car jack plan shows the bumper-hook type of jack with the post only welded directly to the presshead or welded to the base support and the base bolted to the presshead. With the welded post design, the post could easily be cut off just above the weld and returned to normal usage. With the welded post-to-base design, the base can be unbolted and the jack returned to normal usage. A wooden or steel bar is required across the top of the bale box to anchor the jack during the compression process.

The air cylinder presshead is faster to use but has greater initial cost (about $175 for the air cylinder and control valve only). This design is suggested for producers using a 3-box unit and baling over 5,000 pounds per year. Greater cutting, drilling, and welding of steel is required to form the frame. Four to six feet of air hose and several fittings are needed along with a 10-foot length of barn door track and a pair of roller type door hangers. The air cylinder presshead is suspended from the roller hangers and a counter-balance mount under the track so it can be moved back and forth as needed to operate in any of the 3 boxes. The counter-balance arrangement allows the presshead to be pivoted up and out of the way when filling the boxes.

The air control valve is mounted on the front of the presshead adjacent to the cylinder for convenient use. The combination of box height and press stroke has been established to provide the maximum "free board" filling capacity yet compress to a 21-22 inch minimum bale height. The specified 18-inch air cylinder fulfills this requirement. Anyone deviating from these components or the present plans could jeopardize this operational relationship and may impair the performance of the equipment.

The air cylinder presshead design uses a pair of "J"-type hooks per bale box for engaging and holding the presshead during the compression stroke. The construction, alignment, and clearance of these hooks are very important for smooth operation of the pressheads and bale press during use.

The removable front doors are reinforced 1/2-inch plywood. Wooden 2 x 2-inch extensions on each side of the door and a strip of plywood along the bottom front edge of the box allows the doors to be easily placed and held in position. Heavy duty 6-inch safety hasps have been used as the best available and most economical latch for fastening the doors. However, some new special latches are available from a company for 1979 uses. An "L"-shaped sheet metal strip is shown on the top edge of the wooden door for protection of the plywood edges from wearing due to many repeated filling and compression cycles. The edges of the metal must be stiff and in full contact with the wood to prevent tobacco or the press from catching and hanging under the edges.

One special feature of the bale boxes that is shown and recommended for all construction is the "tapered" dimension. That is, the box is 3/4-inch wider at the front than at the rear. The purpose is to make the compressed and "wedged-in" bale easier to remove from the box when completed, just as with many tapered-fit items. Bales made in "square" boxes are harder to pull out and likely to result in broken twine or distorted bales. The tapered box design should be used.

To aid in judging the final bale height dimension, markings should be painted on the inside back plywood showing 22-inch and 24-inch distances above the bottom. Bales must be made within these dimensions. The markings should be placed 6-8 inches away from the center line of the back so as to be easily seen by the operator when the bale is being pressed.

Proper strength in construction and safety in operation are necessary for making good bales and protecting the workers. While several variations in construction materials, methods, and operational techniques will likely occur as many tobacco producers build and use this equipment, the basic construction methods described and shown have proven workable and should be followed until specific improvements are proven acceptable. Anyone fabricating and using the equipment should give careful attention to the methods for abnormal conditions and ways to improve the current procedures. Suggestions for improvement are always welcome.

Plans for Building Bale Press Equipment:

Detailed plans for building the bale presses are shown in this publication. The following options are shown:
1. Single-box bale press,
2. Three-box bale press,
3. Car jack presshead, and
4. Air cylinder presshead.

A list of materials, parts cut-out diagrams, assembly drawings, and suggested step-by-step assembly instructions are included for each item of equipment.

Preparing and Handling Burley in Bales

The following procedures for preparing and handling burley in bales are based on producer experiences and research data from four years of experiments on packaging and handling burley in bale form.

The conditioning and management of the tobacco for bales is essentially the same as for hand-tied tobacco. That is, the moisture content control, bulking and covering techniques, and grading methods, etc. should follow conventional practices. The labor saving advantages of the bale method result from faster removal of the leaves from the stalk by not having to keep the stem ends precisely aligned, elimination of the actual hand-tying process, and less labor in preparing and handling the one-man bale package compared with small stick-size units of hand-tied bundles. Burley tobacco prepared in bale form will not affect the quality or market value when handled in a normal manner.1,2

Condition of Tobacco:

Tobacco with medium to low moisture content for handling ("case" or "order") results in bales of good firmness and storage characteristics. High moisture tobacco (high "case" or "order") is subject to molding and heating just as with conventional hand-tied tobacco and should not be baled.

Bales stacked and stored on edge with free air circulation around the stem ends and sides will allow migration of moisture if needed to equalize moisture characteristics of bales.

Bales may be covered with tarps or other commonly used materials to protect the tobacco during storage as is done with normally bulked tobacco.

Density and Weight of Bales:

Proper bale density (firmness) is essential to production of bales that will maintain their shape during handling and that will stack without toppling over. Tobacco bales will deform under the load of a stack. Excessive deformation generally causes instability of the stack. The higher the moisture content, the greater the deformation. The lower the density, the greater the deformation.

Three primary factors affect the density, or weight, of the bale. These are:
1.stalk position (i.e., flyings, lug, leaf, tips, etc.);
2.moisture content; and
3.compaction force or pressure (by the press).

The relationship between density, moisture content, and compaction pressure has been determined for lower and upper stalk tobacco.3 Table 1 gives bale density and bale weight as a function of moisture content and stalk position at a compaction pressure generally available from the bale press equipment.

Table 1: Relationship Between Moisture Content and Density for Lower and Upper Stalk Tobacco Using A 4-inch Diameter Air Cylinder at 95 PSI to Make a 12 X 22 X 36-inch Bale of Burley Tobacco.
Stalk Position Moisture Content, %(W.B.)* Density Lbs/Ft3 BaleWeight, Pounds
Lower stalk 17 12.1 66
tobacco 20 14.4 79
23 16.8 92
Upper stalk 17 12.7 70
tobacco 20 15.4 85
23 17.0** 94
*The 17, 20, and 23 percent moisture contents, wet basis, represent approximately low, medium, and high case (order} tobacco.
**17.0 lbs/cu. ft. is adequate for stable stacking of 4 bales vertically at the high moisture content.

Research conducted on the stack stability of burley bales4 showed that:
1.Low moisture tobacco (low case) produced stable stacks at densities as low as 11 lbs/cu. ft.
2.Normal moisture tobacco (normal case) produced stable stacks when compacted as much as possible with a 4-inch diameter air cylinder at 95-100 psi air pressure.
3.High moisture tobacco (high case) produced stable stacks at 17 lbs/cu. ft. (92-94 lb. bales).

These results show that density and bale weight for producing stable stacks varies with moisture content. The following general weight ranges are required to produce bales that will stack and maintain their shape:
Low Moisture Normal Moisture High Moisture
65-70 lbs. 80-85 lbs. 90-95 lbs.

High moisture tobacco (above 22-23% w.b .) and bales above 90 pounds should be avoided because of potential storage problems.

Conclusions from a research study of moisture effects on storage of burley bales2 indicate that storage requirements for burley bales are essentially the same as those for hand-tied bundles. Those conditions which normally cause damage in piles of tied hands will likely cause damage in bales.

Stripping Methods:

For a stripping crew of 3 workers or less, two methods of stripping and baling are very comparable in time. One method is to assign each worker to strip a particular grade with no other duties. One worker that is the fastest or most capable of operating the bale press equipment is assigned the task of taking the leaves from each worker and making the bales. The other method is to have each worker strip and deposit his own stripped leaves into a bale box, compress, and tie each bale. An important difference in the two methods is that one worker assigned to make all bales can probably learn and become more proficient in making uniform bales than 2 or 3 different workers.

For a 4 to 7 person stripping crew, one person should be assigned the full-time task of depositing the tobacco in the bale boxes, making and carrying out the bales, bringing in unstripped tobacco, and removing stripped stalks. Larger crews will need to have these tasks divided among two or more workers. Using this procedure, the workers removing leaves can devote their full effort to becoming proficient at leaf removal without distractions and congestion around the bale box, whereas the worker making the bales will become knowledgeable and proficient in making proper bales.

During the stripping process, each worker should remove his respective group of leaves, keep them oriented the same way, and pile them neatly on the bench or a special holder within convenient reach to his side or rear. Each worker, or the one assigned to make the bales, would periodically pick up bunches of leaves having 150-200 leaves and deposit them in the proper bale box.

Making Burley Bales:

Several steps are important in making good quality burley bales. Following are guidelines developed during previous experiments and studies which are recommended for your use.
1.Select and position equipment.
a.Select the type and number of bale press units that are needed and will work in your stripping room. You may wish to build your own bale press or share in the use of a press with friends and neighbors.
b.Set the bale press in the stripping room 4 to 5 feet from the bench and facing the bench if space permits. The manual car jack design can be set against a wall and requires a 7-foot ceiling clearance. The air cylinder design must have 2 feet of clearance between the boxes and the rear wall and an 8-foot ceiling clearance.
c.Prepare the air-cylinder bale press for operation by checking the track, rollers, counter-balance weight, and presshead components for smooth operation and adequate clearance both overhead and to the rear. Connect the air hose to an air supply of 90-100 psi pressure.
d.Check the removable front doors on all boxes for good fit and sturdy latches. Repair or replace any damaged latches and other components.
2.Prepare the bale boxes for use:
a.Cut a supply of 85 to 90-inch long cotton twine (cotton type approved for tobacco baling use*) by looping several turns around two large nails driven 42 to 44 inches apart and cutting the loops at one nail. The nails can be on the end of the bale box so the strings are handy for later use.

*NOTE: Approximately 1 1/4 lb. of the cotton twine is needed for each 1000 lbs. of tobacco baled.
b.With the bale box doors removed, put 3 strings into the respective notches of each box with 6 to 10 inches of each string extending out behind the top of the box. Pull the string snugly down into the top notches, loop them straight down the back of the box, across the bottom, and into the notches at the bottom front of the box with the ends hanging loose.
c.Put the doors into position and secure the latches at each side of the doors.
3.To make a bale:
a.Place large bunches of stripped oriented leaves (about 5 to 6 "hands" equivalent) into a box (one tobacco grade per box) with the stems outward against the box sides, tips overlapping in the center, and bunches alternating in each side of the box to build a uniform bale. If the leaves are too short to lap in the center, put a few bunches across the center to "tie" the bale together.
b.Continue filling and pushing down by hand until the leaves are within 4 to 5 inches of the top of the box.
c.Move the jack or air cylinder presshead into position and compress the bale the full stroke of the press equipment (approximately 21 inch high bale).
d.Remove the presshead and refill the box once more or as required to make the proper size (height, weight, and density) bale, repressing as needed.
e.Before making the final press to finish the bale, pull the strings from the top notches of the box and lay them straight across the bale aligned with the gaps in the presshead boards.
f.Then compress the bale to a 22-24 inch bale height as shown by markings that should be on the inside surface of the plywood back.
g.While the bale is under compression, unlatch and remove the door. Pull the slack out of each string and snugly tie a bow knot near the top edge of the bale. Be careful not to cut or break any strands of the string when pulling and tying the bow knot as the weakened string could break in later handling. Tie a type of bow knot that can be easily and quickly loosened at the warehouse for inspection and grading.
h.Tie a tag (type suitable for baled tobacco use) having the producer's name and a mark for the stripped grade securely on the center twine above the bow knot at the top edge of the bale.
i.Retract the presshead and remove the bale by tilting the top outward thus loosening it in the tapered box for easier removal.
j.IMPORTANT: All bales should be firm, weighing between 65 and 90 pounds, and not exceeding 26 inches tall after removal from the bale box and expansion to the maximum size! Correct improper size bales promptly to avoid possible handling problems and rejection at the warehouse.
k.Take the properly made bales to a storage area and prepare the box for another bale beginning with paragraph 2.b. above.
4.Bale storage on the farm:
a.Store the bales in the barn area on plastic, wood, or a similar base as with hand-tied tobacco to protect from soil contact and moisture uptake. Beginning against a post, wall, or partition, stack the bales upright on an edge just as removed from the press to maintain squareness and a neat, uniform shape. Laying some boards or plywood across the top of the first layer will allow a second layer of bales to be stacked on edge.
b.NOTE: Stacking bales flat-ways more than two high is not advised for long storage periods (more than 1 day) as the bottom bales will usually be mashed out of shape except for the drier tobacco in very firm bales.
c.Stored tobacco can be covered with tarps, etc. for protection as is done with regular hand-tied and bulked tobacco.
d.Check the stacked bales periodically for general condition and safe keeping of the tobacco.
5.Loading and hauling of the bales:
a.The bales can be manually loaded onto any vehicle suitable for hauling hand-tied tobacco. Practice the same management techniques and precautions for protection of the bales from contamination and weather as you would with hand-tied tobacco. Bales can generally be stacked flatways 4 to 5 high for same-day or overnight hauling and unloading trips without appreciable distortion of the bottom bales, especially if the bales have been properly made. Handling bales with frozen or dried edges will cause greater shatter losses than when the edges are kept moist and pliable (in normal "case" or "order").
6.How to check for "firm" bales:
a.The proper "firmness" or "tightness" of any bale can be checked on the farm at the time of making bales (direct from the stripping room and above 32°F tobacco (unfrozen) as follows:
(1)  Compare the size, weight, and moisture content with research results and recommendations reported on page 4 of these instructions, or
(2)  Lay a sample bale flatways on a smooth, solid base. Stack 3 similar bales on top of the first bale. If the stack remains nearly vertical for 24 hours, then the bottom bale is "firm" enough. If the top of the stack leans 2 to 4 inches or more or topples after 24 hours, the bottom bale is too loose and soft. Repack and press this and all similar bales tighter.
(3)  CAUTION: For tobacco too moist (high "case" or "order"), the tobacco can be pressed too tight, resulting in "bruised" or "caked" leaves and possibly lowering the market value of the tobacco.

Allow the tobacco to dry to normal "case" or "order" before baling. Be sure that modified or non-standard bale press equipment does not exceed the compression force of 1,000 to 1,200 pounds as described elsewhere and required to make normal bales.

Delivering and Selling Burley Bales

The handling and loading of the burley bales at the farm should be done similar to the normal handling of hand-tied tobacco. Use a clean bed vehicle that will not contaminate the tobacco. Stack the baled tobacco three to five bales high with the bales laid flatways to form a stable load. Use ropes if necessary to secure the load onto the vehicle.

Be sure each bale has a tag securely attached showing the owners name and indicating a farm grade. This tag is necessary for proper grouping and accountability of your tobacco at the warehouse.

Cover the loaded tobacco with a tarp or suitable material for wind and other protection on the way to the warehouse.

At the warehouse, instructions will be available on the method of stacking the bales on baskets and other pertinent details. Generally, up to seven bales of the same farm grade will be stacked onto a basket. You may have some baskets with only 1 or 2 bales. These lots of tobacco will be weighed as normally done.

The baskets of bales will be lined up on the warehouse floor until sale time.

In preparation for federal grading, a warehouse representative will open a particular bale in a lot of tobacco chosen by a grader for inspection. The producer is responsible for certifying that the bale inspected is representative of the grade of all the tobacco in that lot, that the leaf was stalk-cured, that the bales do not contain any foreign matter or material and that the bales are not nested.

After grading, the bales will be sold by auction in the same manner as conventional hand-tied tobacco. In 1979, a warehouse can sell baled burley on any regular sale day.

1."A Report on Packaging Burley Tobacco," prepared by a Special Committee, College of Agriculture, University of Kentucky, August, 1977.
2.Bunn, Joe M. and Wiley H. Henson, Jr. "Environmental Requirements for Storage of Baled Burley Tobacco." Presented at the 1977 Annual Meeting of the American Society of Agricultural Engineers, Raleigh, North Carolina, June 26-29, 1977. Paper No. 77-4058.
3.Walton, Linus R., Samuel G. McNeill, George A. Duncan, John E. Morrison, Jr., and John N. Walker. "Compressibility of Baled Burley Tobacco." Tobacco Science, XXI: pp. 69-71,1977.
4.Walton, L.R. and J.H. Casada, Agricultural Engineering Department, University of Kentucky. Data from research currently in progress.
5.Bum, J.M., W.H. Henson, Jr., L.R. Walton, L. Swetnam, and J.H. Casada. "Potential for Shatter Loss During Handling of Loose-leaf Packages of Burley Tobacco." Tobacco Science, XXIII: 14-17, 1979.
6.Duncan, G.A., J.H. Smiley and J. Calvert. "Farm Labor and Cost Comparisons for Three Methods of Preparing Cured Burley Tobacco for Market." Tobacco Science, XXIII: 55-60, 1979.

Suggested Assembly Procedure:
1.Cut out parts per Figure 1 and Figure 2.
2.Nail 2 x 2 x 42 1/2 inch wood to SMOOTH side of plywood BACK per Figure 3 above.
3.Nail 2 x 2 x 8 7/8 wood to SMOOTH side of plywood ENDS per Figure 3 above.
4.Nail ENDS to BACK per Figure 3 above.
5.Set box upright, put BOTTOM snugly in box, WIDE EDGE to FRONT per Figure 3 above.
NOTE: Put all ripped edges of 2 x 2's to the plywood and nail with 6d common nails at 6-8 inch spacing.

After partial assembly per Figure 3:
6.Put FRONT and REAR 2 x 4 sills in notches under box and nail through BOTTOM and BACK.
7.Nail 2 x 4 x 12" SUPPORTS under 2 x 4 sills.
8.Nail plywood BASE to FRONT SILL with l-inch extending above BOTTOM as stop for door.
9.Cut saw notches and slits for twine in BACK and BASE.
10.Paint marks at 22 and 24 inches for bale height reference.
11.Fabricate DOOR per separate drawing.
12.Set door in position and install HASP fasteners.
(A)Put all ripped edges of 2 x 2's to plywood, & nail with 6d common nails at 6" spacings. Bevel exposed corners.
(B)3" x 35" x 20 Ga. Galv. metal bent to 11/2" x 11/2" x 88° angle for door edge protector. Drill 3/8" holes for square shoulder of 1/4" x 21/2" carriage bolts.
(C)4 - 1/4" x 21/2" carriage bolts with washers.
(D)Safety hasp bracket (install with door in position and ends aligned for good fit).

(Figure 4), (Figure 5), (Figure 7), & (Figure 12)
Suggested Assembly Procedure For 3-Box Tobacco Bale Press
1.Cut out parts per Figure 1 and Figure 8 drawings.
2.Partially assemble the boxes per Figure 3.
3.Mount metal HOOKS on outside surface of each box END, positioned so square tubing of cylinder mount will be centered on box when front door is in position (see HOOK DETAIL drawing in Figure 9for exact spacing).
4.Set 3 BOXES on front and rear 2 x 4 SILLS, put 2 x 4 COLUMNS in position, space boxes snugly together on front sill and nail lightly (Figure 10). If all boxes are aligned, nail with 6d box nails at 6-8 inch spacing.
5.Position 2 x 4 TOP BACK TIE AND SUPPORT 2" below top rear of BACKS and put 1-16d box nail in each end to hold in position (Figure 10). Lay boxes down on back side (on floor), align further if needed, and nail with 6d box nails into 2 x 4 TIE.
6.Nail plywood BASE strips in position on front bottom of box per Figure 10.
7.Rotate box unit over to lay with front on floor, nail 2 x 4 x 24" and 2 x 4 x 12" stabilizer SUPPORTS to SILLS per Figure 10.
8.Set unit upright and nail BRACES to END stabilizer SUPPORTS.
9.Cut saw slits in BACK and notches in BASE for twine alignment.
10.Prefab DOORS by adding reinforcements and metal edge, per DOOR FABRICATION DETAILS (Figure 5). Put DOORS in position and mount HASPS or other fasteners.
11.Fabricate a CAR JACK or AIR CYLINDER PRESS HEAD per Figure 6 or Figure 11 depending on your choice.
12.To align PRESS BOARDS easily on PRESS HEAD, place boards on BOTTOM of box, snug against BACK, with 1/4" space between tapered end boards and box ends, and inner boards equally spaced. Center metal press head on boards and mark holes. Remove press, drill holes, and then bolt boards to press in position as marked.
13.For a 3-box unit using the TRACK AND AIR CYLINDER PRESSHEAD, prefab TRACK SUPPORT by nailing blocks to the 2 x 4 x 42 1/2" piece and mounting top track hanger. Adjust to proper position per Figure 12 and use 16d nail into 2 x 4 top tie to hold while drilling the holes for the 3/8" x 5 1/2" bolts.
14.For a 3-box unit using a CAR JACK PRESSHEAD, build the basic 3-box unit as above and use the angle iron bar across the 3 boxes per Figure 13.

Figure 1

Figure 2

Figure 3

Figure 4

Figure 5

Figure 6

Figure 7

Figure 8

Figure 9

Figure 10

Figure 11

Figure 12

Figure 13

Figure 14

Figure 15

Figure 16

Figure 17