|The following are examples of degree-day models used to predict insect development and optimize timing of insecticide applications.|
|Pest||Region||Threshold (°F)||Biofix||DD target||Event|
|Codling moth||Midwest||50||First sustained moth flight||250||3% egg hatch; apply an insecticide|
|San Jose scale||Midwest||51||First scale capture in pheromone trap||405||Crawler emergence|
|Oblique-banded leafroller*||NY||43||First adult capture||600||Sample for second and third instar larvae|
|Spotted tentiform leafminer*||NY||43||Start of second generation flight||690||Sample for third generation sap feeding|
|Tufted apple bud moth*||PA||45||First sustained flight||525-550||10% egg hatch; apply an insecticide and again in 300 DD|
|Oriental fruit moth*||CA||45||First moth captured||387||Egg hatch|
|Apple maggot*||NY||43.5||March 1||1130||Emergence of adults|
|Pear psylla*||WA, OR||41||January 1||144||Peak spring counts|
|Fruit-tree leafroller*||B.C.||41||February 1||277||50% egg hatch|
|Peachtree borer*||AR||50||January 1||1440||Start of consistent trap catches|
|* Many of these models have been developed outside of the Midwest, and they may need to be validated for use in this region.|
Great Lakes IPM
(for traps, lures, and other monitoring supplies)
10220 Church Street, NE
Vestaburg, MI 48891
(for traps, lures, and other monitoring supplies)
211 Blue Mounds Road, P.O. Box 270
Mt. Horeb, WI 53572-0270
Forestry Suppliers, Inc.
(for magnifiers, Optivisors, tally counters, waterproof notebooks, stake flags, etc.)
P.O. Box 8397
Jackson, MS 39284-8397
(for beating sheets, vials, magnifiers, etc.)
17803 LaSalle Avenue
Gardena, CA 90248-3602
P.O. Box 4247
Tucson, AZ 85738
245 Oak Run Road
Oak Run, CA 96069
(formerly Bozeman Bio-Tech)
P.O. Box 3146
Bozeman, MT 59772
G. B. Systems, Inc.
P.O. Box 19497
Boulder, CO 80308
Rincon-Vitova Insectaries, Inc.
P.O. Box 1555
Ventura, CA 93002
P.O. Box 913
Belchertown, MA 01007-0913
A 31-page directory, Suppliers of Beneficial Organisms in North America, Charles Hunter, 1992.
State of California
Department of Pesticide Regulation
Environmental Monitoring and Pest Management Branch
Attn: Beneficial Supplies Booklet
1020 N Street
Sacramento, CA 95814
Berkett, L., S. Wolfgang, M. Castaldi, L. Willett, J. Costante, W. Autio, W. Bramlage, W. Lord, R. Lamb, D. Rosenberger, and D. Polk. 1990. Management guide for low-input sustainable apple production. Cornell University. $10.00. 82 pp.
Childers, N.F. 1995. Modern fruit science. Horticultural Publications, 3906 NW 31 Place, Gainesville, FL 32606. (352-372-5077). $59.00. 632 pp.
Ellis, M. 1992. Integrated pest management (IPM) disease management guidelines for apples in Ohio. Plant Pathology Department Series 88. The Ohio State University, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, Wooster, OH. 35 pp.
Ellis, M. 1992. Integrated pest management (IPM) disease management guidelines for organic apple production in Ohio. Plant Pathology Department Series 89. The Ohio State University, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, Wooster, OH. 33 pp.
Flint, M.L. 1991. Integrated pest management for apples and pears. #3340. University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources. 216 pp.
Forshey, C.G., D.C. Elfing, and R.L. Stebbins. 1992. Training and pruning of apple and pear trees. ASHS Press, 600 Cameron Street, Alexandria, VA. 22314. (703-836-2418). ISBN 0-9615027-1-1. $30.00. 166 pp.
Gleason, M., and D. Lewis. 1997. Tree fruits insect and disease management for backyard fruit growers in the midwest. IDEA 3. Iowa State University, University Extension Service, 26 Curtiss Hall, Ames, IA 50011. 41 pp.
Henn, T., and R. Weinzierl. 1990. Beneficial insects and mites. University of Illinois, Circular No. 298. Office of Agricultural Communications and Education, Information Services, 67-C4 Mumford Hall, 1301 West Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801. $2.00. 24 pp.
Hogmire, H.W. 1995. Mid-Atlantic orchard monitoring guide. NRAES-75. Northeast Regional Agricultural Engineering Service. Cooperative Extension, 152 Riley-Robb Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853-5701. $75.00. 361 pp.
Howitt, A.H. 1993. Common tree fruit pests. NCR 63. Michigan State University Extension Service, 10-B Agriculture Hall, East Lansing, MI 48824-1039. (517-355-0240). 95 pp.
Johnson, J.W., and M. Herr. 1995. Apple insect scouting manual. Great Lakes Publishing, 343 S. Union Street, Sparta, MI 49345. 36 pp.
Jones, A.L., and H.S. Aldwinkle. 1990. Compendium of apple and pear diseases. American Phytopathological Society, 3340 Pilot Knob Rd., St. Paul, MN 55121. (800-328-7560). $35.00. 100 pp.
Jones, A.L., and T.B. Sutton. 1996. Diseases of tree fruits in the East. NCR 45. Michigan State University Extension Service, 10-B Agriculture Hall, East Lansing, MI 48824-1039. (517-355-0240). 95 pp.
Mahr, D.L. and N.M. Ridgeway. 1993. Biological control of insects and mites: An introduction to beneficial natural enemies and their use in pest management. NCR 481. University of Wisconsin, Cooperative Extension Publications, Room 245, 30 N. Murray St., Madison, WI 53715. $11.00. 92 pp.
McVay, J.R., J.F. Walgenbbach, E.J. Sikora, and T.B. Sutton. 1994. A grower’s guide to apple insects and diseases in the Southeast. Alabama Cooperative Extension Service, Auburn University, AL 36849-5612. 70 pp.
Ogawa, J.M., E.I. Zehr, G.W. Bird, D.F. Ritchie, K. Uriu, and J.K. Uyemoto. 1995. Compendium of stone fruit diseases. American Phytopathological Society, 3340 Pilot Knob Rd., St. Paul, MN 55121. (800-328-7560). $35.00. 98 pp.
Schwallier, P.G. 1996. Apple thinning guide. Great Lakes Publishing Co., 343 S. Union St., Sparta, MI 49345. (616-887-2666). $11.50. 13 pp.
Taft, W.H., D. Smitley, and J. Snow. 1991. A guide to the clearwing borers (Sesiidae) of the North Central United States. NCR 394. 10-B Agriculture Hall, East Lansing, MI 48824-1039. (517-355-0240). $7.50. 30 pp.