University of Kentucky College of Agriculture, Food & Environment

 

Gluck Center > About Us > Historical Timeline

Historical Timeline of the Department of Veterinary Science


1889

  • 1889 - University of Kentucky Board of Trustees authorized the placement of a Chair of Veterinary Science.

  • 1890 - Samuel Ellsworth Bennett, DVM appointed head of Department.

  • 1896 - The Department disbanded. What began as a training program for veterinarians in 1889 ended reluctantly in 1895, when only one student received a doctor of veterinary medicine degree.

photo of first Vet Sci Bldg
First building of the
Department of Veterinary Science

1915

  • early 1900's - Departmental researchers were the first to describe and determine the cause of the wobbler syndrome in horses.

  • 1915 - Re-establishment of Department of Livestock Diseases when it separated from the Department of Animal Husbandry under Dr. R.L. Pontius/Dr. Graham.

  • 1916 - Vaccine for Salmonella abortion in mares provided by work of Dr. E.S. Good.

  • 1919 - William Wallace Dimock appointed head of Department of Veterinary Science.

photo of Vet Sci Bldg
Department of Veterinary Science 1915

1920's

  • 1923 - Dr. Hull's work established that acidosis in pregnant ewes is a disease of improper nourishment.

  • Drs. Edwards and Hull demonstrated that S. pullorum could be eradicated from chicken flocks with the use of an agglutination test.

  • 1926 - Kentucky State legislature approved the terms of the Purnell account which provided funds for research into sterility problems in mares, in addition to other agriculturally related issues.

  • 1929 - Department name changed to Animal Pathology.

Photo of Dr. Hull
Dr. Floyd Hull

1930's

  • 1930 - The work by Dr. Dimock and Dr. Phil Edwards in the field of mare fertility resulted in an increase in pregnancy rates from 40-65% to 75-85% over a 5 year period.  The emphasis of their work was related to breeding hygiene.

  • 1932 - First U.S. report of Rhodococcus equi in foals, Drs. Dimock and Edwards

  • 1936 - Drs. Dimock and Edwards identified the cause of mysterious abortions in mares as a filterable virus.

  • 1936 - Drs Dimock and Edwards devised laboratory procedures to differentiate equine hemolytic streptococcal isolates from those of human origin.

  • 1939 - The Department was designated the National Salmonella Center after becoming internationally renowned for work with Salmonella.

Newspaper clipping with photo of Drs Bruner, Dimock and Edwards
Drs Bruner, Dimock & Edwards

1940's

  • 1942 - The Department worked in coordination with the US Army to produce diagnostic sera in response to salmonella infections in military personnel on the war fronts.

  • 1945 - Department of Animal Pathology moved into new building, known now as the Dimock Building of Animal Pathology.

  • 1946 - Floyd Hull appointed head of Department of Veterinary Science.

  • 1947-48 - Pathogenesis of neonatal isoerythrolysis of foals elucidated; Drs. Dimock, Edwards, Hull, Doll &Bruner.

  • 1947-48 - Streptococcus genitalium / zooepidemicus identified as most frequent bacterial cause of equine abortion and foal death; Drs. Dimock, Edwards & Bruner.

  • 1947-48 - First comprehensive list of distribution and occurrence of salmonella serotypes in the United States; Drs. Edwards, Bruner & Moran.

  • 1948 - Work in veterinary parasitology at University of Kentucky was nationally recognized partially in response to the phenothiazine treatment validated at University of Kentucky.

  • 1948 - Departmental researchers were the first at UK to routinely use embryonating chicken eggs in virus research.

  • 1948-1953 - Drs. Doll, McCollum & Wallace made significant contributions to the understanding and control of Newcastle disease, especially as related to efficacies of vaccines.

Photo of Dimock Building
Dimock Animal Pathology Building

1950s

  • 1950's - Dr. Doll and others devised much needed laboratory procedures for the study of equine abortion virus (Equine herpesvirus-1) infections, including vaccine development and evaluation.

  • 1950's - Equine viral arteritis (EVA) was described for the first time as a specific disease by Drs. Doll, Bryans and McCollum.

  • 1954 - Dr. Drudge was the first to discover and publish the resistance of Haemonchus contortus to phenothiazine in sheep. This is believed to be the first report in the world of a nematode species resistant to a chemical compound.

  • 1957 - Equine arteritis virus (EAV) isolated by Dr. Doll.

  • 1959 - Departmental researchers were the first at UK to routinely use animal cell cultures in virus research.

  • 1959 - EAV was propagated for the first time in vitro (primary equine kidney cell cultures). This host system was used to develop reliable laboratory procedures for the comprehensive study of EVA; McCollum, Doll and Wilson.

Photo of Dr. Doll
Dr. Roger Doll, developer of the first vaccine for herpesvirus abortion in mares, administers his vaccine by intranasal inoculation (late 1950's).

1960’s

  • 1960's - Development of the first multivalent vaccine against equine influenza, a viral respiratory disease which affected a large percentage of the horse population each year, and can result in a significant loss of income to horse owners.

  • 1960's - An effective live avirulent EAV vaccine was developed and evaluated by Drs. McCollum, Doll and Wilson.

  • 1960's - Serological studies confirmed that EAV infections occurred worldwide; Drs. McCollum and Bryans.

  • 1960's - Virulence/pathogenesis of strains of EAV studied; Dr. McCollum.

  • 1963 -Harold Drudge appointed head of Department of Veterinary Science.

  • 1963 - Thiabendiazole, an anthelmintic, was released after the Department of Veterinary Science cooperated in the testing of its efficacy with Merck & Co., Inc.

  • 1966 - Research began on mare’s response to extended (artificial) light in controlling her reproductive cycle.  This discovery changed forever the struggle to get mares in foal earlier in the year.

  • 1969 - Vaccine for Streptococcus equi consisting of heat inactivated bacteria was first commercially used.  The vaccine was validated at Department of Veterinary Science by work in the lab of Drs. Bryans & Moore in cooperation with Fort Dodge Animal Health.

  • 1969 - Drs. Moore & Bryans - classification of group C streptococci.

Photo of Jim Wilson
Jim Wilson

 

Photo of Dr. Bryans in lab
Dr. John T. Bryans and co-worker Alice Smith

1970’s

  • 1970's - Development of a blood test to detect evidence of contagious equine metritis (CEM) in mares; a disease introduced to the United States in 1977 that posed a threat to the economic well-being of the entire Thoroughbred industry because of international sanctions on movement of horses.

  • 1973 - John T. Bryans appointed head of Department of Veterinary Science.

  • 1978 - the State Department of Agriculture transferred the Livestock Disease Diagnostic Center (LDDC) to the University of Kentucky, and it became part of the Veterinary Science Department.


1980's

  • 1983 - Ivermectin, a parasiticide was released by Merck, after validation studies which included work in the Department of Veterinary Science. 

  • 1983 - Mr. and Mrs. Maxwell H. Gluck, owners of Elmendorf Farm, conveyed to the University an interest in providing a memorial to Maxwell Gluck. It was suggested to the Glucks that they might find an equine research institute suitable.

  • mid-1980's - Scientists in the Department of Veterinary Science facilitated the development of a vaccine for the extremely contagious disease rotavirus

Photo of Mr & Mrs Glucks
Mr. & Mrs. Gluck

 

  • 1984 - An epidemic of equine viral arteritis caused problems in the Thoroughbred breeding industry.  A modified viral vaccine that was developed in the 1960’s was immediately utilized to stop the epidemic.

  • 1984 - The EVA epidemic allowed researchers for the first time to confirm, pinpoint and define the "carrier" state in stallions. This knowledge has been used effectively to devise strategies for controlling the spread of EVA; Drs. P. Timoney and McCollum.

  • 1986 - Construction began and the Maxwell H. Gluck Equine Research Center was completed in 1987.

  • 1987 - James R. Rooney appointed head of Department of Veterinary Science.

  • 1988 - Release of the first ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) developed in Department of Veterinary Science for drug detection in equine athletes.

  • 1989 - Peter J. Timoney appointed head of Department of Veterinary Science.

Photo of groundbreaking
Groundbreaking for the Gluck Center.
Mr. Bassett III, Mrs. Gluck, Dr. Otis Singletary

1990's

  • 1993 - The Maxwell H. Gluck Equine Research Center was designated by the Office International des Epizooties (the animal equivalent of the World Health Organization) as a World Reference Center for 3 significant equine viral diseases:
    -- Equine rhinopneumonitis (equine herpesvirus 1 & 4)
    -- Equine influenza
    -- Equine viral arteritis

  • 1993 - Purification and partial sequence of equine complement factor C3.

  • 1993 - ELISA for SeM (S. equi) specific antibodies in horse sera developed.

  • 1994 - First diagnostic test for equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) a neurological disease affecting horses nationwide caused by a protozoan parasite.  This test uses spinal fluid or serum to detect the parasite. 

  • 1995 - Protective SzP protein (Moore & Bryans typing antigen) of Streptococcus zooepidemicus sequenced.

  • 1997 - M protein (SeM) of Streptococcus equi sequenced.

  • 1997 - PCR for detection of Streptococcus equi in clinical samples developed.

  • 1999 - Flu-Avert™ developed in conjunction with Heska provided an intranasal vaccine for equine subtype 2 influenza virus. The modified-live virus vaccine was licensed in 1999 by the USDA. Work on maternal antibody interference by researchers in the department led to new recommendations for foal vaccination schedules by the American Association of Equine Practitioners.

  • 1999 - Lenn R. Harrison appointed acting chair of Department of Veterinary Science.

Test for EPM
Early Western blot test showing the presence of specific antibodies in horse serum against proteins from Sarcocystis neurona, the primary causative organism of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis.

2000's

  • 2000 - Equine pneumonias caused by Streptococcus zooepidemicus shown to be clonal infections.

  • 2001 - M cells described on equine nasopharyngeal tonsil.

  • 2001 - Successful intranasal immunization of horses with attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.

  • 2001 - Temperature regulation of immunoreactive proteins of Leptospira interrogans induced during infection

  • 2001 - Further research into EPM spawned the development of the first FDA-approved medication available for treating EPM – Marquis™ released by Bayer Pharmaceuticals in August 2001.

  • 2001 - A group of Gluck scientists pulled together with other University of Kentucky investigators from various departments to number more than 100 researchers to help determine the cause of the early fetal losses and late-term abortions and other problems that occurred as a result of Mare Reproductive Loss Syndrome (MRLS). 

  • 2002 - Peter J. Timoney appointed head of Department of Veterinary Science.

  • 2002 - Discovery and molecular characterization of pyrogenic exotoxins of Streptococcus equi.

  • 2005 - Clostridium perfringens vaccine for prepartum immunization of mares developed and field tested.

  • 2005 - Discovery of leptospira proteins Lru A and B uniquely expressed in eyes of horses with recurrent uveitis.

  • 2005 - Genome of bacteriophage P9 of Streptococcus equi sequenced.

  • 2005 - Ernie Bailey initiates and is the first author of the "white paper" proposal that leads to full genome sequencing of the horse by the National Human Genome Research Institute.

Proceedings of MRLS workshop

 

Maxwell H.Gluck Equine Research Center
Department of Veterinary Science, University of Kentucky
Lexington, Kentucky 40546-0099

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