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Mare Reproductive Loss Syndrome

Questionnaire
 
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Questionnaire 
in PDF format

Farm Questionnaire

Date of interview:  ______________________(mm/dd/yy)
Farm ID:  ______________________________________
Person performing interview:  _________________________
GIS coordinates:  ___________________________________

F1.  Of the total number of equine present on this operation April 1, 2001, how many  were:
 
F1a.  Horses (excluding miniature horses)?  _________ horses
F1b.  Other equine? (specify:______________)  _________ equine
F1c.  Then the total equine on hand April 1, 2001 was: _________ equine

F2.  As of  April 1, 2001, how many horses were 18 months of age or older?    _____ horses

F3.  Were any of these horses that were 18 months of age or older:
 
F3a.  Intact males (stallions)?  Y N 
F3b.  Castrated males (geldings)?  Y N

F4.  What was the primary breed of  horses  on this operation as of April 1, 2001?            _____ code
        1-  American Saddlebred
        2-  Draft breed
        3-  Quarter horse
        4-  Standardbred
        5-  Thoroughbred
        6-  Other registered breed  (specify:_____________________)
        7-  Other non-registered breed (grade)  (specify:_______________)

F5.  How many mares were bred from Feb. 10 - Apr. 1, 2001 (due date = Jan - Mar. 2002)? _____ mares
 
F5a.  How many of these mares were pregnant via US prior to 45 days gestation? _____ mares 
F5b.  How many of these (F5a) mares were US checked at 60 days gestation or later? _____ mares
F5c.  As of the last US, how many of these (F5b) mares were:

1.  Pregnant, normal US _____ mares
2.  Pregnant, abnormal US _____ mares
3.  Open  _____ mares
F5d.  For mares that had abnormal US or were open, how many mares showed signs of illness before  this abnormal US? (specify signs) _____ mares

 
F6a. How many mares foaled from Jan.1 - Mar.31, 2001? _____ mares
F6b. How many mares aborted from Jan.1 - Mar.31, 2001? _____ mares
F6c. How many foals that were born from Jan. 1 - Mar. 31, 2001, died within 4 days of life? _____ foals

 
F7.  How many pregnant mares did you have with a due date of Apr. 1 - June 1, 2001? _____ mares
 F7a.  How many of these (F7) mares:
 
1.  Are still pregnant?  _____ mares
2.  Aborted full-term (320+ days gestation) foals? _____ mares
3. Aborted premature foals? _____ mares
4.  Produced live full-term foals? _____ mares
5.  Produced live premature foals? _____ mares
6.  Unknown (left the operation before foaling)? _____ mares

F7b.  How many of the live foals died within 4 days of life:
 

1.  Full-term foals?  _____ foals
2.  Premature foals?  _____ foals

F8.  Did the majority of broodmares receive the following drugs prior to May 1, 2001?

Mares bred during 2001(status at breeding)
Mares bred 
during 2000
Maiden/barren foaled in 2001
A.  Oxytocin
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
B.  Prostaglandins 
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
C.  hCG 
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
D.  Ovuplant
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
E.  Progesterone (eg, Regumate)
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
F.  Thyroid supplementation
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
G.  Domperidone
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
H.  Antibiotics uterine infusion
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
I.  Antibiotics, oral/injectable
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
J.  NSAIDS
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N

F9.  Do you routinely culture mares pre-breeding?     Y N
    F9a.  Were there any unusual results this breeding season?   Y N
    (specify ______________________________)

F10.  What is the primary criteria used to group broodmares?      _______ code
    1- foaling date
    2- compatibility
    3- other (specify _________________________)
    4- not grouped

F11.  What vaccines were administered to the majority of broodmares from Feb. 1 - Apr. 15, 2001?
 
A.  Influenza Y   N (if yes, IN1 or IM2 ________)
B.  Strep equi (Strangles)  Y   N (if yes, IN1 or IM2 ________)
C.  Herpes (rhino)  Y   N (if yes, killed1 or live 2 _____)
D.  Rabies Y   N
E.  Encephalitis (EEE, WEE) Y   N
F.  Tetanus Y   N
G.  Botulism Y   N
H.  EPM Y   N
I.  Rotavirus Y   N
J.  EVA Y   N
K.  Other Y   N

F12.  Is there  surface water, such as streams, lakes, ponds and irrigation ditches, in ANY brood mare pasture?                                             Y N

F13.  Which of the following were sources of drinking water for broodmares in 2001?
 
1-  Well Y   N
2-  Municipal water supply Y   N
3-  Spring Y   N
4-  Surface water, such as a pond, stream, river, or cistern Y   N
5-  Other, specify: ______________________________  Y   N

F14.  Predominant source for pregnant mares                        _____ code (from above question)

F15.  What was the primary method of delivery of drinking water for mares in April 2001?          _____ code
 1-  Automatic waterers
 2-  Troughs
 3-  Buckets
 4-  Directly from surface  water
 5-  Other specify

F16.  During the last 2 weeks in April, how many times were the waterers/troughs/buckets cleaned (emptied and rinsed)?                                                          ______ times

F17.  Which of the following best describes the moisture level of the ground  where the MAJORITY of pregnant mares stood most of the time:
 

during Feb/Mar?
_____ code
during Apr.?
_____ code
1 - usually wet
2 - wet about half the time
3 - usually dry

F18.  For mares foaling in April, how many hours per day did the majority of mares spend on pasture during:
 
A.  January 2001? 
B.  February 2001?
C.  March 2001? 
D.  April 2001? 
E.  May 2001? 
_____ hr/day
_____ hr/day
_____ hr/day
_____ hr/day
_____ hr/day

F19.  How many pregnant mares were on pasture at night during the last 2 weeks in April 2001?
 
Maiden/barren (bred ‘01)
_____ code
foaled in 2001/rebred
_____ code
due to foal April-June ‘01
_____ code
1- most or all mares
2- some mares
3- none

F20.  During April, did pasture provide at least 90% of the roughage for pregnant mares?  Y N
 

F21.  How many pregnant mares were “held off”  pasture (eg, for illness or lameness) from 
Apr. 15 - 25?
______ mares
F21a.  How many of these mares lost their foals to either EFL or LTA? ______ mares

F22.  During April 2001, did you mow the pasture:
 
A.  Before the frost 
B.  During the frost (Apr. 17, 18) 
C.  After the frost
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
F23.  Do you routinely spread manure on pasture?
F23a.  If yes, is the manure composted prior to spreading? 
Y   N
Y   N

F24.  Were most of the pastures fertilized with:
 
during Fall 2000? During Spring 2001?
A.  Ammonium nitrate 
B.  Urea 
C.  Other (specify _________) 
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N

F25.  Were most of the pastures treated with lime during:
 
A.  1999? 
B.  2000? 
C.  2001? 
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N

F26.  During spring 2001, were any of the pastures treated with:
A.  Herbicides?  Y N   (if yes, specify _____________)
B.  Pesticides?   Y N   (if yes, specify _____________)

F27.  Are there any trees:
 
A.  Inside the pastures? 
B.  Around the pastures (overhanging ) 
(if both NO, skip to F28)
C.  Are any of these trees cherry trees? 
D.  Have you seen cherry tree seedlings (volunteers) in the pasture? 
Y   N
Y   N

Y   N
Y   N

F28.  What is the composition of your pastures?
 
A.  Fescue 
B.  Orchard grass
C.  Bluegrass 
D.  Other grass 
E.  Clover 
F.  Unknown
_____ %
_____ %
_____ %
_____ %
_____ %
_____ %
100%

F29.  Did you notice any ragweed in the pasture this year?   Y N

F30.  During the driest part of April 2001, which of the following best describes the percent of area covered by edible vegetation in ALL pastures the broodmares had access to?                           _____ code
 1 - less than 25%
 2 - 25 - 49%
 3 - 50 - 74%
 4 - 75% or more

F31.  During Spring 2001, which of the following best describes how dried forage / hay was usually fed:
 
In the stall? 
_____ code
Outside?
_____ code
 1-  Loose on the ground
 2-  In troughs / racks
 3-  In rubber tires
 4-  In hay nets
 5-  In other individual feeders
 6-  Other, (specify: ______________)
 7- Not fed

F32.  Was the hay primarily:                              _____ code
 1- farm grown
 2- from off-farm, KY grown
 3- from another state (specify _________)

F33.  Was the hay                                              _____ code
 1- crop 2000
 2- crop 2001
 3- both

F34.  During Spring 2001, was grain fed to:
 
Mares bred in 2000:  Mares bred in 2001:
 A.  In the stall? 
 B.  Outside? 
(if no grain fed to mares, skip to F38)
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N

F35.  Were any of the following grain / concentrate sources fed to broodmares in 2001?
 
 A.  Unpelleted sweet feed (e.g., grain mixed with molasses) 
 B.  Unpelleted grain (e.g., whole or rolled oats, corn etc.) 
 C.  Complete feed pellets / cubes (forage and supplement) 
 D.  Grain or sweet feed mixed with pellets 
 E.  Other, specify: ______________ 
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N

F36.  During 2001, was this grain source stored on this farm in a manner that allowed fecal contamination by:
 
 A.  mice or rats? 
 B.  domestic or wild birds including poultry? 
 C.  domestic livestock including equine? 
 D.  dogs or cats? 
 E.  other wildlife? 
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N

F37.  What percent of the grain / concentrate fed during 2001 was from the following sources?
 
A.  Purchased in bags (retail source) 
 B.  Bulk delivery (retail source) 
 C.  Bulk delivery (other source) 
 D.  Home grown 
 E.  Other, specify: ___________________________________ 
_____ %
_____ %
_____ %
_____ %
_____ %
100%

F38.  Were any of the following feed products fed to broodmares between Jan. 1 and May 1, 2001 (either with grain or with forage)?
 
A.  Probiotics (beneficial bacteria) 
 B.  Mycotoxin binders 
 C.  Vitamin and/or mineral supp/premix 
 D.  Protein-Vitamin-mineral supp/premix 
 E.  Chondroitin sulfates 
 F.  Herbal supplements 
 G.  Other (specify ____________) 
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N

F39.  Were the following types of bedding used for mares during 2001?
 
1-  Straw 
 2-  Hay 
 3-  Wood shavings, chips or sawdust 
 4-  Shredded paper 
 5-  Other, specify: ____________________ 
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N

F40.  Which of these bedding types was the predominant bedding used for the majority of broodmares during 2001?                                                             ______code   (from above question)

F41.  This next question refers to wildlife or evidence of their presence including tracks, scat, carcass, or damage.  In the last 12 months, did you often, sometimes, or never see the following wildlife or evidence thereof on the horse premises or in the immediate vicinity?
 
Often  Sometimes  Never
A. mice or rats 
B. raccoons or skunks 
C. coyotes or foxes 
D. deer or elk 
E water fowl such as geese or ducks 
F. bats 
G. opossums 
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3

F42.  Do any of the following WILD animals have access to the broodmares’ stored feed grain/concentrate or stored hay?
(State N/A if not fed concentrate)
 
Stored Feed grain/ Concentrate Stored hay
A.  birds 
B.  deer or elk 
C.  opossums 
D.  rats or mice 
E.  other wild animals (specify in margins) 
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N

F43.  During 2001, did the following domestic animals have physical contact with mares or their feed?
 
A.  Cattle
 B.  Sheep / goats
 C.  Poultry 
 D.  Pigs 
 E.  Deer / elk 
 F.  Dogs 
 G.  Cats
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N

F44.  Which of the following types of dewormers were given to broodmares during 2001?
 
A.  Continuous (in feed) 
 B.  Ivermectin / moxidectin 
 C.  Pyrantel (eg, Strongid) 
 D.  Fenbendazole (eg, Panacur) 
 E.  Other (specify_________) 
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N

F45.  How would you characterize the concentration of caterpillars on your farm
 
During 2000? 
_____ code
During 2001?
_____ code
1- very heavy (“blankets” of caterpillars on fences, waterers, etc.)
 2- moderate (many caterpillars in trees, some in pastures or barns)
 3- low (only a few observed)
 4- none
 5-cannot characterize
(if none during 2001, skip to F47)

 F46.  During 2001, did you observe caterpillars:
 
  A.  In trees in or around pastures 
  B.  In Broodmare pastures 
  C.  In Other horse pastures 
  D.  In Broodmare stalls 
  E.  On Fencing 
  F.  In Waterers or water buckets 
  G.  In Feeders 
  H.  In Hay 
  I.   In Grain 
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
F46j.  What percentage of horse pastures had evidence of tent caterpillars? ________ %
F46k.  Did you directly observe any horses eating caterpillars?  Y   N

F47.  What type of insect control was used during Spring 2001?
 
A.  Repellants in stalls/barns 
 B.  Repellants applied to horses 
 C.  Pesticides applied to pastures 
 D.  Pesticides applied to trees/shrubs 
 E.  Pesticides in feed 
 F.  Other (specify _________) 
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N

F48.  Have you experienced higher than usual losses this year in:
 
A.  Late/full term foals? 
 B.  Early fetal losses? 
Y   N
Y   N
F48c.  If yes (to either), was any kind of investigation done? Describe.
 
 
 
 

F49.  Did you do any of the following in response to these losses?
 
 A.  Take mares off pasture 
 B.  Feed mycotoxin binder 
 C.  Give antibiotics 
 D.  Progesterone 
 E.  Domperidone 
 F.  Banamine 
 G.  Other treatment 
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N

F50.  Describe what impact you feel these interventions may have had.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

F51.  What is your theory about the cause of mare reproductive loss syndrome?
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
F52.  Have you had any cases of uveitis? 
          or pericarditis? 
Please describe.
Y   N
Y   N

 
 
 


Pasture Questionnaire
FARMID ________

-- Farms that report having higher than usual foal losses this year:  Select 2 pastures:  the one where the highest number of EFL or LTA occurred and the one with the lowest number of losses.

-- Other farms:  Select the ONE pasture that had the greatest number of pregnant mares during April.
 
HIGH  LOW
P1.  What is the composition of this pasture? Pasture 1 Pasture 2
 A.  Fescue 
 B.  Orchard grass 
 C.  Bluegrass 
 D.  Other grass 
 E.  Clover 
 F.  Unknown 
_____
_____
_____
_____
_____
_____
_____ %
_____ %
_____ %
_____ %
_____ %
_____ %
100% 100%
P2.  Is there ragweed in this pasture?  Y   N Y   N
P3.  What percent of this pasture is covered by:
 A. edible vegetation? 
 B. dirt and sand? 
 C. inedible weeds? 
 D. other? (specify: __________________________) 
_____
_____
_____
_____
_____ %
_____ %
_____ %
_____ %
  100%  100%
P4.  How would you rate the forage quality of this pasture? 
1 - poor  2 -  average 3 - excellent
______ ______
P5.  Was manure physically removed from this pasture  Jan. 1 - May 1, 2001? 
 P5a.  Was this pasture chain harrowed between Jan. 1 - May 1, 2001? 
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
P6.  How many pregnant mares were on this pasture during Apr. 2001? 
 P6a.  How many of these mares experienced EFL? 
 P6b.  How many of these mares experienced LTA? 
_____
_____
_____
_____
_____
_____
P7.  How many hours per day did the majority of pregnant mares on this pasture spend on this pasture during:
 A.  January 2001?
 B.  February 2001?
 C.  March 2001?
 D.  April 2001?
 E.  May 2001?
_____
_____
_____
_____
_____
_____
_____
_____
_____
_____
P8.  Were the mares on this pasture during April, primarily (status at breeding): 
1- bred 2001, maiden/barren;   2- bred 2001, foaled in 2001; 
3- bred 2000, due Apr. - Jun. 2001
_____
code
_____
code
P9.  Was supplemental hay fed to pregnant mares on this pasture Jan. 1-May 1, 2001? Y   N Y   N
P10.  How many broodmares were “held off” this pasture (eg, for illness or lameness) from Apr. 15 - 25? ______ ______
P11.  During April 2001, was this pasture mowed:
 A.  Before the frost? 
 B.  During the frost (April 17, 18)? 
 C.  After the frost? 
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
P12.  Was manure spread on this pasture? 
P12a.  If yes, was the manure composted prior to spreading? 
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
P13.  Was this pasture fertilized
During Fall 2000 with: 
   A.  Ammonium nitrate? 
   B.  Urea? 
   C.  Other? 
if yes, lb/acre

Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
______

Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
______
During Spring 2001 with: 
   D.  Ammonium nitrate? 
   E.  Urea? 
   F.  Other? 
if  yes, lb/acre 

Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
______

Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
______
P14.  How many times was this pasture treated with lime during:
 A.  1999? 
 B.  2000?
 C.  2001?
if used, tons/acre 
______
______
______
______
______
______
______
______
P15.  During spring 2001, was this pasture treated with:
A.  Herbicides? 
        if yes, specify 
B.  Pesticides? 
        if yes, specify 
Y   N
______
Y   N
______
Y   N
______
Y   N
______
P16.  Are there any trees:  (If trees have been cut down, ask what was there)
Inside the pasture?
  A.  Cherry trees 
  B.  Other fruit-type trees 
  C.  Other deciduous trees 
  D.  Evergreens 

Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N

Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
Around the pasture (overhanging )?
  E.  Cherry trees 
  F.  Other fruit-type trees 
  G.  Other deciduous trees 
  H.  Evergreens 
(if NO trees, skip to P18)

Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N

Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
P17a.  Do you see cherry tree seedlings (volunteers) in this pasture? 
 P17b.  Do you see any deciduous trees stripped of leaves? 
 P17c.  Were trees treated with any pesticides? 
        if yes, specify 
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
______
Y   N
Y   N
Y   N
______
P18.  Is there surface water, such as streams, lakes, ponds and irrigation ditches, in this pasture? Y   N Y   N
P19.  How would you characterize the concentration of Eastern tent caterpillars in this pasture during April? 
1- very heavy (“blankets” of caterpillars on fences, waterers, etc.)
 2- moderate (many caterpillars in trees, some in pasture)
 3- low (only a few observed)
 4- none
 5-cannot characterize
_____
code
_____
code
P20. Has this pasture been tested for anything in the past 6 months? 
(if yes, specify tests performed and results)
Y   N Y   N




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