Welcome to the Master Grazer Educational Program

-an educational program to improve grazing practices in beef, dairy, goat and sheep herds


Grazing News Articles

Articles on forages, animals, and grazing systems

Additional Resources


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Master Grazer Educational Program reports to KY Ag Development Fund Board:

2016 Third Quarter Report
2016 Second Quarter Report
2016 First Quarter Report
2015-2016 Bi-Annual Report
2013-2014 Bi-annual Report
2012 Annual Accomplishments
2011 Annual Accomplishments




Zach Workman

Master Grazer Coordinator
821B W.P. Garrigus Building
University of Kentucky
Lexington, KY
(859) 257-7512
E-mail: zewo222@uky.edu

Faculty Coordinators:

Dr. Ray Smith

Extension Forage Specialist
University of Kentucky
Phone: (859) 257-3358
Fax: (859) 323-1952  
Email: raysmith1@uky.edu

Dr. Donna Amaral-Phillips

Extension Dairy Cattle Specialist
University of Kentucky
Phone: (859) 257-7542
Fax: (859) 257-7537  
Email: damaral@uky.edu

Dr. Jeff Lehmkuhler

Extension Beef Cattle Specialist
University of Kentucky
Phone: (859) 257-2853
Fax: (859) 257-3412  
Email: jeff.lehmkuhler@uky.edu


What to Graze During Heat Stress


An advanced rotational grazing system should provide forages for livestock to graze year round. It is important to plan ahead and utilize several forage species to supply adequate amounts of quality forage and to increase the length of the grazing season. As the environmental temperature increases, cool-season forages begin to go dormant and production decreases. Warm-season grasses and legumes should be incorporated into grazing systems in order to reduce overgrazing paddocks and supply ample amounts of high quality grazing throughout the summer months. These forages grow best between late spring and early fall when temperatures are between 80° F and 90 °F. 


Several options exist when deciding what warm-season forages to add to your grazing system. Commonly used warm-season annual forages in Kentucky include sorghum, sudangrass, sorghum X sudangrass hybrids (Sudex), and millets. These species are highly productive in the hot summer months and provide high quality feed when grazed in a vegetative state. Nitrate accumulation and Prussic acid poisoning can be health risks to animals grazing these forages after drought or frost or when grazing young regrowth. Millets do not produce prussic acid. For more information on prussic acid poisoning see http://www2.ca.uky.edu/grazer/October11_Prussic_Acid.php.


Warm-season perennials commonly used include native species such as big bluestem, Eastern gamagrass, switchgrass, and Indiangrass. Bermudagrass is a common non-native species that has been increasingly used for pastures in Kentucky. These species are often difficult to establish, but once established, can produce a thick stand for many years. Because they are lower in quality, it is not recommended for grazing animals with high nutritional needs, but can be ideal for grazing dry dairy cows, beef cattle, replacement heifers, and small ruminants through the hot summer months.


When the temperature increases and cool-season forages decrease in production, grazing warm-season forages is useful to provide large amounts of quality feed. Warm-season perennials are seeded as early as mid-April while warm-season annuals are planted as early as May 1st. Be sure to plant after risk of frost when seeding any warm-season species. Using winter-hardy varieties can also be advantageous as winter kill is a possibility for warm-season perennials in Kentucky. For more information on warm-season annuals see http://www.ca.uky.edu/agc/pubs/agr/agr88/agr88.pdf. For more information on warm-season perennials see http://www2.ca.uky.edu/grazer/May12_warm_season_perennials.php.