Welcome to the Master Grazer Educational Program

-an educational program to improve grazing practices in beef, dairy, goat and sheep herds


Grazing News Articles

Articles on forages, animals, and grazing systems

Additional Resources


Extension Publications


Enter your E-mail to receive the monthly Grazing News Newsletter:


Master Grazer Educational Program reports to KY Ag Development Fund Board:

2016 Third Quarter Report
2016 Second Quarter Report
2016 First Quarter Report
2015-2016 Bi-Annual Report
2013-2014 Bi-annual Report
2012 Annual Accomplishments
2011 Annual Accomplishments




Zach Workman

Master Grazer Coordinator
821B W.P. Garrigus Building
University of Kentucky
Lexington, KY
(859) 257-7512
E-mail: zewo222@uky.edu

Faculty Coordinators:

Dr. Ray Smith

Extension Forage Specialist
University of Kentucky
Phone: (859) 257-3358
Fax: (859) 323-1952  
Email: raysmith1@uky.edu

Dr. Donna Amaral-Phillips

Extension Dairy Cattle Specialist
University of Kentucky
Phone: (859) 257-7542
Fax: (859) 257-7537  
Email: damaral@uky.edu

Dr. Jeff Lehmkuhler

Extension Beef Cattle Specialist
University of Kentucky
Phone: (859) 257-2853
Fax: (859) 257-3412  
Email: jeff.lehmkuhler@uky.edu


Start the Grazing Season Off Right


It is tempting to turn livestock back onto pastures as soon as forages start to green up and produce new growth. Harvesting forages too early or grazing down too low can reduce stand productivity and longevity. Allow plants sufficient growth time prior to grazing as well as during rest periods to maximize forage quality, yield, and stand persistence. Increased chance of overgrazing is another issue when grazing short forages. Grazing too early not only hurts future forage production but can also reduce livestock performance. Loose stools are common when grazing this young forage that is highly digestible and low in fiber content. Often, during this time, available forage is sparse which may increase traveling distance and reduce intake. Increased traveling and reduced bite mass may lead to reduced gains and reduced production.


Ideal grazing heights can vary depending on forage species. The following table shows recommended grazing heights for forages common in Kentucky.

Species Start Grazing End Grazing
Orchardgrass 8-10” 3-4”
Kentucky Bluegrass 8-10” 1-2”
Tall Fescue 8-10” 3-4”
Alfalfa Bud Stage 2-3”
Annual Ryegrass 8-10” 2-3”
Bermudagrass 6-8” 1-2”
Other Cool-Season Grasses/Legumes 8-10” 3-4”
Warm-Season Annual Grasses 20-24” 8-10”
Warm-Season Native Grasses 18-22” 8-10”


While it is important not to overgraze pastures, when cool-season forages are growing rapidly in the spring, livestock may not be able to keep up with grazing. Too keep forages from becoming too mature, one possible option is to harvest some fields for hay while using others strictly for grazing. If not harvesting for hay, pastures should be mowed to keep forages from becoming too mature and to control weeds. Moving livestock more quickly may be another option. It is important for each individual to consider all costs when deciding to harvest pastures for hay.


Another consideration in the early spring is the livestock’s change in diet. Mixing dry hay into the diet when shifting to lush pastures can allow animals to become accustomed to the change. Also, be sure that livestock are supplied with adequate minerals at all times. Keep in mind that in early spring, a high magnesium, or high “Mg” mineral should be available to reduce the risk of grass tetany and fed until daytime temperatures are consistently above 60°F.


The beginning of the grazing season is a time to be very aware of both pasture and animal health. Start the grazing season off right by adapting your system to the current conditions. Turning livestock out on pastures before the forages are allowed adequate growth may decrease forage production for the remainder of the year. On the other hand, livestock may not be able to keep up with forage growth in the spring when forages are growing rapidly. Harvesting this forage for hay, mowing pastures, or moving animals more quickly are options to keep forages from becoming too mature and to control weeds. Early spring management of livestock and pastures can help to maximize success and production for the remainder of the grazing season. For more details see Rotational Grazing.