Search research reports:
Improving the Sustainability of Livestock and Poultry Production in the United States
G.L. Cromwell, J. Grove
Department of Animal and Food Sciences
Certain diets contribute to the excretion of excessive phosphorus, nitrogen, and other nutrient into the environment This project will determine the effectiveness of diet alterations on reducing nutrient excretion into the environment.
2009 Project Description
Manure excreted by swine and poultry is much higher in phosphorus than manure from other farm animals because much of the phosphorus in feed grains and oilseed meals is organically bound as phytate. Our studies have shown that phytase supplementation increases the bioavailability of phosphorus in feeds and reduces phosphorus in the manure.
Swine manure is also high in nitrogen which can contribute to aerial ammonia as well as serve as a potential contaminant in ground water. Our studies show that proper diet formulation using amino acid supplementation and using superior dietary ingredients that improve dietary protein utilization will improve body retention of nitrogen (i.e., body protein) and reduce nitrogen excretion in growing and finishing swine.
Whether organic forms of trace minerals are more bioavailable than inorganic forms has been a controversial issue. Our studies have shown that the substitution of certain forms of organic minerals may or may not have the potential of reducing trace mineral excretion into the environment. The addition of microbial phytase to swine diets improves phosphorus utilization and reduces phosphorus in the manure. Similarly, the use of superior feed ingredients along with proper amino acid supplementation improves body protein retention and reduces nitrogen excretion. Our studies should help the swine industry to make and feed environmentally-friendly diets for pigs.
We also collaborated with other experiment stations to investigate the effects of including a high-fiber ingredient in diets for gestating sows. Litter size was improved with the high-fiber diet. In another collaborative study, we determined the effects of feeding a high fiber diet consisting with as much as 45% distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets for growing-finishing pigs. Performance was only slightly depressed with the feeding of the high DDGS diet, but belly firmness was decreased.
Manipulating the diet in order to reduce nitrogen and phosphorus excretion in the manure will improve the environment as waste from these species is applied to crop land. Our studies will help the swine and poultry industries to produce and feed enhanced environmentally-friendly diets to their animals.
Veum, T.L., J.D. Crenshaw, T.D. Crenshaw, G.L. Cromwell, R.A. Easter, R.C. Ewan, J.L. Nelssen, E.R. Miller, J.E. Pettigrew, M.R. Ellersieck, and the North Central Region-42 Committee on Swine Nutrition. 2009. The addition of ground wheat straw as a fiber source in the gestation diet of sows and the effect on sow and litter performance for three successive parities. J. Anim. Sci. 87:1003-1012.
Cromwell, G.L., M. J. Azain, O. Adeola, S.K. Baidoo, S.D. Carter, T.D. Crenshaw, S.W. Kim, D.C. Mahan, P.S. Miller, and M.C. Shannon. NCCC-42 Committee on Swine Nutrition. 2009. Corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets for growing-finishing pigs. A cooperative study. Abstract 138 at the Midwestern Section of Amer. Soc. Anim. Sci., March 16-18, Des Moines, IA.