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Nutritional Systems For Swine To Increase Reproductive Efficiency
M.D. Lindemann, D.K. Aaron
Department of Animal and Food Sciences
A primary factor affecting profitability of swine enterprises is sow productivity and optimum nutrition of the sow is essential to maximizing productivity. However, the potential impact of nutrient pollution of the environment is probably the major issue facing swine producers. A primary factor affecting profitability of swine enterprises is sow productivity and optimum nutrition of the sow is essential to maximizing productivity. However, the potential impact of nutrient pollution of the environment is probably the major issue facing swine producers.
2010 Project Description
1. A follow-up study is evaluating the long term reproductive effects of crowding young females in their nursery pens immediately after they are weaned. Previous results demonstrated that the increased social/environmental stress of the crowding reduces subsequent litter size when these females enter the breeding herd. The present study is evaluating why this occurs and how it may be mitigated. The current group of females has completed one reproductive parity and pregnant females are being slaughtered during Parity 2 to assess various aspects of fetal development. Approximately 75% of females have completed this phase; the remaining females will be finished and then the data will be analyzed.
2. A third study was done that evaluated various levels of addition of salt to the diet of nursery pigs. The studies examined both the preference (free choice) of the pigs for various levels of salt in the diet as well as the performance of pigs not given a choice of diets. An abstract of the results has been accepted for presentation at swine meetings for the feed industry.
3. Previous studies clearly defined the ratio of the amino acid tryptophan that is needed in the diet to the amino acid lysine when pigs are fed in U.S-type situations. These results were reported and will help limit the amount of unnecessary supplementation of tryptophan to swine diets which will reduce total dietary cost and will reduce nitrogen excretion by pigs. This year we conducted three studies to determine if the exposure of pigs to antibiotics in the diet affect that ratio. The results are being analyzed and an abstract will be prepared for presentation at scientific meetings.
4. A field study was conducted to follow up on initial data in our laboratory that demonstrated improved birth weight of pigs when their dams were supplemented with an enzymatically digested yeast product that contained mannan oligosaccarides for two weeks prefarrowing. In the 5-week field study, results from over 350 litters were recorded (compared to 24 litters in the 6-week study on campus). The results corroborated portions of the initial results and have been submitted for presentation at veterinary professional meetings.
1. It is important to realize that simple management decisions early in the life of young females (i.e., how many pigs/pen or how crowded they can be) will impact future reproductive performance. Because of the very important societal interest in animal well-being, this information, which has not been generated before because it is such a long-term study, will have positive impact in many ways. The female pig will be better understood and cared for. The swine production industry will be able to demonstrate their concern about the welfare of pigs, and the consumer can be assured that their food is produced in a manner that is acceptable. However, the monetary quantification of benefit:cost ratio awaits the additional data that is currently being generated.
2. Salt is an extremely inexpensive ingredient and because it is routinely added to all animal diets, it has not been the subject of much research. Our data clearly show that the newly weaned pig chooses a diet with more salt than is often added to nursery diets. This selection is especially evident during the first 2 weeks postweaning and is more pronounced in barrows than in gilts. Some work remains to identify the exact level of salt that the pig will choose, but the adoption of these altered dietary salt levels will be relatively rapid because of the very low cost of the ingredient. The benefit:cost ratio of this dietary addition will exceed 50:1.
3. The question of whether antibiotics should be used in production animal diets is widely debated in society. Our research attempts to provide a fuller understanding of all of the effects of those antibiotics in the pigs. Our work will be the first that examines the effect of an antibiotic on amino acid ratio requirements in pigs. The results, when finally analyzed, will allow producers and society greater information for clarity of the impact of the potential removal of antibiotics as a production tool on the health and nutritional needs of the pigs themselves. Currently the results are being examined to determine if we have the statistical power needed to proceed with publication or whether we need an additional study to increase our statistical power.
4. Scaling-up the discovery work from campus into an industry setting allowed the examination of the effects of this supplement in a real-life setting and generated the number of observations needed to speak about the effects with a statistical significance that will be readily accepted by consulting veterinarians. This technology that improves birth weight of pigs will have benefit all the way to the marketing of those pigs. Benefit:cost comparisons currently suggest a ratio of 10:1 when the benefits are accounted through the end of the nursery phase (a bit less than in the campus study but still extremely attractive); benefits should properly be accounted through marketing of the pigs and that may increase the benefit:cost ratio beyond 20:1.
Wang, M.Q., Y.D. He, M.D. Lindemann, and Z.G. Jiang. 2009. Efficacy of Cr (III) supplementation on growth, carcass composition, blood metabolites, and endocrine parameters in finishing pigs. Asian - Australasian J. Anim Sci. 22:1414-1419.
M.D. Lindemann, A.D. Quant, J.S. Monegue, M. Wang, G.L. Cromwell, and M.C. Newman. 2010. Evaluation of antibiotic effects on P digestibility and utilization by growing-finishing pigs fed a phosphorus-deficient, corn-soybean meal diet. J. Anim Sci. 88:1752-1758.
Cho, J.H., M.D. Lindemann, H.J. Monegue, and G.L. Cromwell. 2010. Feeding value of dried porcine solubles for weanling pigs. Prof. Anim. Sci. 26:425-434.
Agudelo, J.H., M.D. Lindemann, and G.L. Cromwell. 2010. A comparison of two methods to assess nutrient digestibility in pigs. Livest. Prod. Sci. 133:74-77.